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2017/9/18 14:02:49来源:新航道作者:新航道




Section 1





Questions 1-10

write ONE WORD AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer

1. Newspaper page: front page

2. Newspaper story: Parkhurst

3. photo subject: athlete of the week

4. photo use: personal aim

5. Image type: color photo

6. Price: $ 80

7. Process method: normal

8. payment type: cheque

9. delivered method: by mail

10. reading frequency : every day

Section 2





Questions 11-20

write TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer

1st location are visiting dinosaur exhibit

11. visitors can see the biggest dinosaur bones

12. visitors may find 170 dinosaur footprints

2nd location

13. night tour is commended

14. introduce the early history of Canadian mining industry

3rd  location

15. mineral resources and the development of local

16. stop at the rest area of the high way. Parking and enjoy your view

17. small bears(raccoons) are special in blue colour

18. on the cleanest river in the world

ways of transportation

19. rise in horseback needs government’s permit

20. transport by boat

Section 3





Questions 21-25

21. Why do more and more people choose history subject?

A. it is more interesting

B. local organisation offer positive support

C. financial support


22. What is the task of the second week?

A. divide responsibility

B. make proposal

C. hand in report


23. Students’ presentation is given

A. by the whole audience

B. by interviewers

C. on mark sheet


24. What does the work of student’s work have to do?

A. provide access to supervisors

B. be interesting

C. based on research


25. What did John say about students in the past?

A. they exhibit different strength

B. they have more ability

C. not enough interaction with the audience


Questions 26-30

What do different people say about history subject?

Choose five answers from the box and write the correct letter, A-G, next to Questions 26-30.

A. it relate the history to the present

B. it needs some IT skills

C. it provides unique opinions

D. it allows various perspectives

E. it is beneficial to a large extent

F. it links the history to the present

G. it offers advice to the future


26. potential students   

27. government officers   

28. teachers          

29. class managers

30. general citizens


Section 4





Questions 31-40

write ONE WORD AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer

31. The amount of CO2 you have to discharge from eating a meal is twice as much as that from driving.

32. The repair process of making 100g coffee can result in 140g CO2.

33. The meat production process releases more greenhouse gases.

34. A great deal of CO2 also originated from cooking.

35. The transportation is to release CO2 as well.

36. packing

37. The total amount of CO2 increases a lot due to the damage of forests.

38. Farming practice also brings out a lot of CO2.

39. chicken’s food

40. organic food, but fish is an exception


Passage 1



Content Review


During July 2003, the Museum of Science in Cambridge, Massachusetts exhibited what Honda calls 'the world's most advanced humanoid robot', ASIMO (the Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility). Honda's brainchild is on tour in North America and delighting audiences wherever it goes. After 17 years in the making, ASIMO stands at four feet tall, weighs around 113 pounds and looks like a child in an astronaut's suit. Though it is difficult to see ASIMO's face at a distance, on closer inspection it has a smile and two large eyes' that conceal cameras. The robot cannot work autonomously- its actions are 'remote controlled' by scientists through the computer in its backpack. Yet watching ASMIO perform at a show in Massachusetts it seemed uncannily human. The audience cheered as ASIMO walked forwards and backwards, side to side and up and downstairs. After the show, a number of people told me that they would like robots to play more of a role in daily life- one even said that the robot would be like another person’.



While the Japanese have made huge strides in solving some of the engineering problems of human kinetics and bipedal movements, for the past 10 years scientists at MIT's former Artificial Intelligence (AI) lab (recently renamed the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, CSAIL) have been making robots that can behave like humans and interact with humans. One of MIT's robots, Kismet, is an anthropomorphic head and has two eyes (complete with eyelids), ears, a mouth, and eyebrows. It has several facial expressions, including happy, sad, frightened and disgusted. Human interlocutors are able to read some of the robot's facial expressions, and often change their behavior towards the machine as a result- for example, playing with it when it appears 'sad'. Kismet is now in MIT's museum, but the ideas developed here continue to be explored in new robots.



Cog (short for Cognition) is another pioneering project from MIT's former AI lab. Cog has a head, eyes, two arms, hands and a torso- and its proportions were originally measured from the body of a researcher in the lab. The work on Cog has been used to test theories of embodiment and developmental robotics, particularly getting a robot to develop intelligence by responding to its environment via sensors, and to learn through these types of interactions.



MIT is getting furthest down the road to creating human-like and interactive robots. Some scientists argue that ASIMO is a great engineering feat but not an intelligent machine- because it is unable to interact autonomously with unpredictabilities in its environment in meaningful ways, and learn from experience. Robots like Cog and Kismet and new robots at MIT's CSAIL and media lab, however, are beginning to do this.



These are exciting developments. Creating a machine that can walk, make gestures and learn from its environment is an amazing achievement. And watch this space: these achievements are likely rapidly to be improved upon.

Humanoid robots could have a plethora of uses in society, helping to free people from everyday tasks. In Japan, for example, there is an aim to create robots that can do the tasks similar to an average human, and also act in more sophisticated situations as firefighters, astronauts or medical assistants to the elderly in the workplace and in homes- partly in order to counterbalance the effect.



Such robots say much about the way in which we view humanity, and they bring out the best and worst of us. On one hand, these developments express human creativity- our ability to invent, experiment, and to extend our control over the world. On the other hand, the aim to create a robot like a human being is spurred on by dehumanized ideas- by the sense that human companionship can be substituted by machines; that humans lose their humanity when they interact with technology; or that we are little more than surface and ritual behaviors, that can be simulated with metal and electrical circuits.



Robots are mentioned in some films. In 1927, the director Fritz Lang made the film Metropolis, the movie character Rotwang is a brilliant scientist and inventor, whose greatest achievement is the creation of a robot named Maria.


Questions & Answers

Questions 1-6

1. Different ways in which robots could be used to assist people. (E)

2. The name of a robot whose size and limbs are designed by scientists to be the same as a human adult. (C)

3. A contrast between ASIMO and other robots. (D)

4. The use of robots in artistic works. (G)

5. Arguments for and against the development of robotics. (F)

6. A description of how people respond to a robot exhibition. (A)


Questions 7-13

It took Japanese scientists at Honda 7. 17 years to produce ASIMO, a robot can behave like a human. It can receive instruction via technology contained in its 8. backpack.


Kismet made in Northern America manages to 9. interact with people and can change its 10. facial expressions.


11. Cog, another robot produced in MIT, is for the development of 12. intelligence and can react autonomously to 13. environment, then learn from the experience.

Passage 2



Content Review

P1 The smog enveloped London in 1991 the number of deaths shot up by 10 per cent (1. The figures suggest that the smog killed about 160 people2. The episode presents the first direct evidence of deaths from air pollution in Britain for more than 30 years)


P2 The smog in December 1991 was the worst in Britain in recent years. Many of those who died had probably been suffering from heart disease and respiratory problems.


P3 Evidence of the deaths has been compiled by Ross Anderson.

Anderson’s results have already convinced the Department of Health to act. Under air quality guidelines which it set last year, no public warning would be given if the 1991 smog was repeated today, because the level of pollutants would not be high enough.


P4 The smog blanketed London from the morning of Thursday 12 December until winds cleared the air the following Sunday evening. Two pollutants reached exceptionally high concentrations: nitrogen dioxide and particulates.


P5 By looking at the number of people in London who died the week before the smog, and the number who died in the same week in previous years, Anderson found that 10 per cent more people than expected died during the smog.


P6 Government figures and reasons for casualties:

Figures: about 1700 people were registered dead during the fateful week and about 160 extra people died during the smog.

Reasons for death

1. Anderson found the number of people who died from respiratory diseases, including asthma and severe lung disease, was 22 per cent higher than expected during the week of the smog.

2. The number of people who died from cardiovascular disease was 14 per cent higher.


P7 An epidemiological study cannot prove that air pollution caused the extra deaths( such as Anderson’s).but the findings do point to pollution:“This is consistent with an effect of air pollution.


P8 The professor Stephen Holgate’s opinion

The effect Anderson found might be caused by other unexpected factors.

It is not clear whether nitrogen dioxide or particulates were to blame. The nitrogen dioxide levels were more extreme.


P9 There is growing concern about particulates.

1. Joel Schwartz calculated that they kill 10 000 people a year in England and Wales

2. Douglas Dockery says Anderson’s results fit the pattern he has seen in urban areas.


P10 John Bower episodes as bad as the 1991 smog are rare, and he thinks If the same weather happens again, it would recur.


P11 The advisory group needs to review the limit of 600 pp for nitrogen dioxide.


Questions & Answers

Questions 14-18

14. About 1,700 people are registered dead in December in December 1991.   A

(由数字进行定位,和文章第6段的The government figure shows...得知答案)

15. The smog happened in December 1991 was rare.   F

(rare定位到第10段,正是John Bower的观点)

16. If it meets the same weather, the smog will happen again.   F

(happen again是第10recur的同意转换,也是John 的观点)

17. Anderson’s results fit the pattern he has seen in other cities.   E

(in other cities是文章第9urban areas的同意转换,所以是Douglas Dockery的观点)

18. Department of Health’s advisory group set a limit of 600 ppb for nitrogen dioxide before the government issued a public health warning.   G

(用数字600定位,完全符合第11段,主体是advisory group)


A The government

B Ross Anderson

C Advisory Group on the Medical Aspects of Air Pollution

D Joel Schwartz

E Douglas Dockery

F John Bower

G the Department of Health’s advisory group

Questions 19-22 summary (NO MORE THAN TWO WORD OR A NUMBER

The smogs happened by two factors; they were built up from 19. traffic fumes during four windless days in December 1991...It had lasted 20. four days until the air is clear...The Advisory Group found the evidence of effects on 21. breathing at concentrations had been weak; Anderson found the number of people who died from respiratory diseases and 22. cardiovascular disease.


Questions 23-26 YES/ NO/ NOT GIVEN

23. Ross Anderson has the conclusive opinion that the air pollution caused death.   NO

(7An epidemiological study such as Anderson’s cannot prove that air pollution caused the extra deaths. But the abstract of Anderson’s paper concludes:‘The results suggest an increase in mortality occurred during the episode week. This is consistent with an effect of air pollution.)

24. The effect Anderson found might be caused by weather or another unexpected factor.   YES

(8it is difficult to be sure that the effect Anderson found was not caused by weather or another unexpected factor. But the findings do point to pollution.)

25. The rise of nitrogen has more significant effect on death than the rise of particulate.   NOT GIVEN

(8It is not clear whether nitrogen dioxide or particulates were to blame. The nitrogen dioxide levels were more extreme.)

26. The limit which was set by the Department of Health’s advisory group was a failure.   NO

(11Last year, the Department of Health’s advisory group set a limit of 600 ppb for nitrogen dioxide before the government issued a public health warning. At the department’s request, the advisory group is meeting this week to review the limit.)

Passage 3


Speech Act and Philosophy

Content Review

P1 Our conversation is not primarily to the sentences we utter to one another, but to the speech acts that those utterances are used to perform: requests, warnings, invitations, promises, apologies, predictions, and the like.


P2 According to Austin, there seems to be no clear-cut boundary between speaking and acting. Rather, saying is sometimes acting. Alternatively, to put it in another way, words are part of deeds.


P3 Constative utterances are verifiable (true or false) statements, aiming to either state or describe. Performative utterances are statements not verifiable (not true or false), aiming at performing a certain act.


P4 Cohen's reasoning assumes that any utterance of ‘I promise to read that novel’ is a promise. But it is neither a sentence, nor even the utterance of a sentence, is sufficient on its own for the performance of a speech act, be it a promise or some other.


P5 Man’s use of language is an intentioned act conditioned by rules. And the basic unit of speech communication is not words or sentences but speech acts as they express the speaker’s intention. Also, the speech act is a function of sentence meaning.


P6 There is a problem about the analysis of performative verbs. Maybe we are forced to say that these verbs have two meanings.


Questions & Answers

Questions 27-32 multiple choice

27. In the first paragraph, indicative sentences   D

28. In the second paragraph, scientific hypothesis

B. are examples of what is true or false

29. Football is used by Austin to    

B. to demonstrate the capability of language to carry out actions

30. Part of Austin’s aim is to   

A. find the right and wrong sentences used

31. A sentence can be called descriptive when 

D. the speaker’s thoughts are known

32. A reason for the complete failure of performative sentence is

D. the speaker may not take action


Questions 33-35 matching

33. Indicative sentences serve more purposes than other sentences.   F

34. Austin’s claim is that a language is similar to other activities.   A

35. Constative utterances is a description of what is true or false.   E


Questions 36-40 Y/N/NG

36. Interrogative sentence can be used to tell people what to do.   Yes

37. Language is the most interesting field of philosophy.   Not Given

38. Philosophers paid little attention to what is right or wrong.   No

39. Moral judgment is best assessed on right or wrong questions.   No

40. The methods of science and Law should be distinct.   Yes


Task 1

Type of questions



The chart below shows the amount of energy generated by wind in four countries between 1985 and 2000.



Task 2



Type of questions



An increasing number of people are changing their careers and places of residence. Is it a positive or negative development?


  Part 1

People & Animal


Pop star





Daily routine





Vegetables and fruits




High school


Newspaper and magazine


Emails and Letters




Work or study

Sunny days





Rainy days

  Part 2&3

People & Animal

Describe a family member made you proud.让你骄傲的家人

Describe a couple you know who have a happy marriage.幸福的婚姻

Describe an interesting person from another country.有趣的外国人

Describe a businessman you admire.敬佩的商人


Describe an enjoyable experience in your childhood.童年趣事

Describe something you want to do for a long time but you havent done yet.想做的事

Describe a time you need to arrive early.早到的经历

Describe an interesting conversation you had with a stranger.有意思的谈话

Describe an English lesson you had.英语课

Describe a time you saw lots of people were smiling.好笑的场合

Describe a (long) car journey you went on.汽车旅行

Describe something or activity you do to stay healthy.保健方法


Describe a time that you had a free gift.免费礼物

Describe your favourite piece of clothing.喜欢的衣服

Describe a piece of art (like statue, painting).艺术品

Describe an important invention which has changed our life.重要的发明

Describe an occasion that you had a special cake.特殊的蛋糕

Describe something you bought according to an advertisement you saw.因广告而购物

Describe an exciting book you have read.令人兴奋的书

Describe something you bought recently that you were happy with.开心购物

Describe a piece of furniture.家具

Describe a traditional product in your country.传统产品

Describe an important letter you received.重要的信


Describe a city youve been to.去过的城镇

Describe an interesting place that few people know.鲜有人知的地方

Describe a place you know where people go to listen to music (such as a theatre or a music hall).听音乐的地方

Describe a dream home you would like to have.理想之家

Describe a leisure facility (cinema, theatre, sports center) you would like to have in your hometown.休闲设施

Describe a time you went to a crowded place.拥挤之地


Describe a TV series or drama you enjoy watching.电视节目

Describe a piece of good news you heard from others.好消息


Describe a (good) decision someone made.一个决定

重点话题Sample Answer

Describe a time you went to a crowded place.

You should say:

When you went there

Where the place was

What you did there

And explain why you went there

and how you felt about the crowded place.


I once went to the biggest market in Europe which is the Hague Market. Being open 4 days a week you can find almost anything on the market. It is handy to know that their goods range from fresh produce to clothing, flowers and many more items. It opens just before 9am and it is so hectic the whole day that sometimes you may fall over a pram or somebody’s “granny” shopping trolley.


It is so bustling especially on Wednesdays, cause I have been told that Wednesday is the best day to buy seafood. Since everyone was gathered in the street, it appeared that life was buzzing. The shouts of the sellers, loud haggling between the buyer and sellers, discussions of people over different issues and the surrounding environment made it noisy.





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