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名师说第二期|雅思语法中容易混淆的概念

2018/10/25 14:10:36来源:新航道作者:新航道

摘要:雅思、托福主讲章建丽老师为大家说道说道“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句及并列复合句

  小编在名师说第一期中

  雅思8分导师、5分救星杨凯老师

  给大家分析了口语提不高的几个原因

  并且支招各位考生

  雅思口语到底该怎样练习


  今天名师说第二期

  为大家带来干货的是我们

  雅思、托福主讲章建丽老师

  为大家说道说道

 “介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句及并列复合句


  上海新航道雅思、托福主讲

  上海师范大学教育学硕士

  高等学校教师资格证书持有者


  “介词+关系代词”

  引导的定语从句

  大家经常在雅思阅读文章中看到由“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句,也就是说定语从句的关系副词when、where、why可以用“介词+which”来代替,关系副词实际上是介词+先行词。这类定语从句主要用于正式文体,在非正式文体中通常将介词放至句末。


  when=表时间的介词(如:in、at、during等)+which

  Where=表地点的介词(如:in、at、on、under等)+which

  Why=表原因的介词(如:for)+which

  

  很多同学不清楚如何理解和选择这类从句中关系代词前的介词,这有时会影响阅读理解的准确度进而影响答题的正确率。这里给大家提供三原则:一先、二动、三意义。


  一先,即根据先行词的搭配关系来选择

  I never forget the day on which I came to this university. (on the day)

  二动,即根据定语从句中谓语动词与介词的搭配关系来选择

  This is the watch on which I spent 9000 yuan. (spend money on sth.)

  三意义,即根据定语从句的意义来确定介词

  That is my pair of glasses, without which I cannot see clearly.


  雅思阅读中的这类的句子,如DNA: the substance in which genetic information is stored.

  in which=where

  DNA是储存基因信息的物质


  Breeding seasons in animals such as birds have evolved to occupy the part of the year in which offspring have the greatest chances of survival.

  in which=when

  动物比方说鸟类的繁殖季节已经进化发展到占据一年当中的一段时间,在这段时间里子孙后代的存活几率比较大。


  并列句和并列复合句

  并列复合句在雅思考试中有广泛的运用,但很多同学容易把并列句和并列复合句混淆。在此先从英语句子的分类入手,把英语句子按结构的分类弄清楚,为听说读写特别是长难句分析打好基础。


  1.简单句:一个主语(或并列主语)+一个谓语动词(或并列谓语)

  2.并列句:简单句+并列连词+简单句

  3.复合句:主句+从句


  其中,复合句可以分为两类:

  (1)主从复合句: 三大类从句即定语从句,状语从句,名词性从句

  (2)并列复合句: 把并列句中的一个或多个简单句替换成主从复合句

  比方说:


  He is my friend and that’s why I accepted the task.

  简单句+包含表语从句的复合句

  I ask him when we’ll go to the zoo , but he doesn’t know.

  包含宾语从句的复合句+简单句

  It’s a mass extinction, and whether we will ever rebound from the loss is difficult to know.

  简单句+包含主语从句的复合句


  主从并列句和并列复合句中常用的连词有:

  And、so、not only…but also、otherwise、or 、neither…nor、either…or、but、yet、while、for等。


  并列复合句在雅思听说读写中

  都有广泛运用

  1.雅思口语(并列复合句可以出现在回答中)

  喜好题:Do you like watching films?

  Films enable me to experience different lives, and the best part of it is that I always learn something that I can never learn from anywhere else.

  简单句+包含表语从句的复合句

  偏好题:Do you receive lots of gifts on your birthday?

  Definitely! All of my family and friends know that I am a big fan of perfumes and bags, so they buy me all kinds of perfumes and bags as gifts.

  包含宾语从句的复合句+简单句


  人物类题:Describe a creative person that you admire.

  He is not a tall player among those who played in the 2016 Euro Cup, yet he always runs pretty fast during the matches.

  包含定语从句的复合句+简单句


  2.雅思写作(并列复合句直接出现在题目中)

  环境类题:Some people think that individuals can do nothing to improve the environment, and only the government and big companies can make a difference. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

  包含宾语从句的复合句+简单句


  并列复合句可以出现在回答中

  教育类题 : Volunteer work organized by middle schools brings more benefits than problems. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

  We cannot rule out the possibilities that community service is not well-planned so it can lead to the overuse of volunteers’ time and energy.

  包含同位语从句的复合句+简单句


  政府类题 : Instead of asking the government to bear the cost of higher education, students should pay tuition fees themselves. Do you agree or disagree with this statement?

  My opinion is that students’ personal situation should be considered before the government decides whether to fund the candidates, and I believe this will enhance both fairness and efficiency in the whole society.

  包含表语从句和状语从句的复合句+包含宾语从句的复合句构成的并列复合句


  本期的名师说就到这里了

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