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2019/12/19 11:06:25来源:互联网作者:上海新航道




  2019年12月SAT亚太区写作考题所选取的文章为Steve Lipsher于2013年在The Denver Post 上发表的“ The value of professional photographers can’t be overstated(原文附后)”,其主要观点为:专业摄影师的价值是不容忽视的。


  这篇文章与College Board发布的SAT Study Guide 2020里第157页Sample Passage 1(选文1)关注的问题有一定相似性。SAT Study Guide 2020上的文章作者是Peter S. Goodman,题目是“Foreign News at a Crisis Point”,于2013年发表于TheHuffingtonPost.com。



  值得一提的是,上述两篇文章都提到了“citizen journalists(公民记者)”,这是什么概念呢?


  Citizen journalism就是“公民新闻”,指从新闻的采访写作,到编辑发布,都不假手于专业记者或编辑,完全由“读者”自己采写,这些读者则被称为citizen journalist(公民记者)。全世界第一位citizen journalism当属1998年在其个人博客中对克林顿Zip Gate性丑闻曝光的美国人德拉吉。

  公民新闻相较于传统新闻的优点在于可以在第一时间在现场进行real-time reporting(实时报道)。相较mainstream media(主流媒体)而言,也多了更多的vividness(生动性)。在突发事件的报道中,citizen journalism正在发挥越来越重要的作用。

  然而,SAT今年12月亚太考题与SAT Study Guide 2020上的“Foreign News at a Crisis Point”都深刻地分析了过于依赖citizen journalists的不良后果。


  不难看出,文章作者Steve Lipsher用了包括但不限于以下几种手法来增强自己观点的说服力(原文附后):


  例如,文章开篇提到的Bill Linfield是一个业余的摄影师,他免费或接近免费的投稿一旦被报纸或者电视等媒体接受,就意味着专业的新闻摄影师失去了相应的展现他们作品的机会。



  在描述非专业作品带来的负面影响时,文章作者引用了电视台9News的主持人Kyle Clark的评价:“Why is it that every time it snows that we whip out photos of our patio sets like we’re showing off baby photos of our kids? Is that really the best we can do?...Let’s be more original the next time the snow flies.”

  很明显,Clark在抱怨,citizen journalists们,即普罗大众们,非专业的新闻摄影师们,没能够拍出很精美、有原创性的雪景照。文章作者借由这样一段稍长的直接引用内容,来加强自己的观点—流失了专业的摄影师,也就流失了好的创意、好的艺术作品,十分可惜。


  文章一开始的切入点是一位有极高拍照热情的非专业摄影师,他的作品被Summit Daily News免费使用,乍看上去,这类事件对社会影响较为有限,而且影响仿佛仅限于当地(Summit County)。


  比如在第8段,他指出”Of course, the issue isn’t limited to Summit County.”读者们便能得知,全国范围内的报纸几乎都存在同样的问题。

  接下来,在第11段,作者说:”And it’s not just newspapers.”读者开始发现,在其它的媒体领域,不仅仅是报纸,专业的新闻摄影师生存之地也在不断被压缩。


  “Any professional photographer these days can recount being asked to take photos for free or to accept insultingly low fees”。也就是说,在日常生活的方方面面,专业摄影师的价值都被低估了,他们付出了劳动和心血,却没有获得相应的报酬。


 The value of professional photographers can’t be overstated

  by Steve Lipsher

  1.Bill Linfield is a friend, a great guy and a superb amateur photographer who takes pride in his exemplary wildlife and landscape photos.

  2. So why is he persona non grata among the professional photographers in Summit County?

  3. Because Linfield freely — and that’s the appropriate word here — shares his work with the Summit Daily News, which never replaced its beloved longtime photographer, Mark Fox, upon his retirement and which instead relies upon the kindness of strangers for its Page 1 photos.

  4. “I take photos daily because I have a passion for it and enjoy sharing the beauty of where I am able to live and play,” Linfield said. “Besides, if I don’t share my photos, why am I taking them?”

  5. Local professional photographers lament that Linfield and others offering their work without compensation are enabling the paper to devalue photography, which they contend remains an integral part of newspaper storytelling.

  6. Matt Lit, a Summit County photography educator at Colorado Mountain College and a former news photographer, praises Linfield’s work as “quite stunning” but fears it is another step in the inexorable march toward the demise of professional photojournalism. Good photography lures in readers who, as a result, see the advertising that supports the news outlet, he said.

  7. “Once upon a time, I used to earn money selling my photos,” Lit said. “If I sold a photo to a television station to use on their broadcast, that’s air time and that’s valuable stuff. What’s the equivalent ad rate for that amount of air time or for that amount of newspaper space?”

  8. Of course, the issue isn’t limited to Summit County. Newspapers all across the country have been cutting photographer positions, with the Chicago Sun-Times in May taking the extreme position of eliminating its entire full-time photo staff, then saying four of the 28 will be rehired. (The Denver Post has not been immune to industry-wide downsizing, unfortunately, but it still retains the core of its top-drawer photographers, including two-time Pulitzer Prize winner Craig F. Walker.)

  9. Last month, David Becker of PetaPixel pointed out that the annual American Society of News Editors newsroom census, compared year over year, shows that U.S. newspapers are employing 43 percent fewer photographers, videographers and artists than they were in 2000.

  10. In many cases, media outlets now are asking reporters to take cameras with them on assignments or simply relying on “crowd sourcing,” in which “citizen journalists” — basically anyone with an iPhone in his pocket — can snap pictures and willingly share them.

  11. And it’s not just newspapers.

  12. Linfield’s work also has appeared periodically on 9News, where anchor Kyle Clark recently had the audacity to complain in a special on-air editorial that readers were sending in boring photos depicting snowfall on patio furniture.

  13. “Why is it that every time it snows that we whip out photos of our patio sets like we’re showing off baby photos of our kids? Is that really the best we can do?” he grumbled. “We live in one of the most beautiful spots on Earth, but we point our cameras toward the back porch … . Let’s be more original the next time the snow flies.”

  14. That’s right: Clark is protesting the quality of free photos that 9News receives from amateurs.

  15. Summit County photographer friend of mine, Tim Faust, doesn’t fault the media for taking advantage of free photography but does think that complaints like those raised by Clark are a case of beggars can’t be choosers.

  16. “It is supply and demand,” Faust said. “If people are willing to provide free images, then why should media pay for them? However, I take issue with a media outlet complaining about the lack of quality of their free images.”

  17. Any professional photographer these days can recount being asked to take photos for free or to accept insultingly low fees: friends want a “quick” portrait, businesses request “cheap” images for their websites and brochures, wedding parties can’t understand why they need to pay so much for what they don’t realize typically amounts to more than just a day’s labor.

  18. Yet just a few days ago, we were all reacquainted with some indelible 50-year-old images from newspapers that remind us how powerful good photography can be in telling a story: Jackie Kennedy standing stoically in her blood-stained pink dress and pillbox hat as LBJ took the oath of office on that crowded airplane, Ruby shooting Oswald, John-John saluting his father’s coffin.

  19. It is a shame that professional photography is being so undervalued today, and that’s made even worse when media outlets exacerbate the impression that it’s not worth paying for good photos.


  2019年12月SAT北美卷写作考题所选取的文章为Susan Wojcicki(时任著名视频网站YouTube CEO)于2014年在The Wall Street Journal 上发表的“Paid Maternity Leave Is Good for Business(原文附后)”其主要观点为:“带薪产假制度对于女性休假者本人、她的家庭、她所服务的公司都会产生积极的影响。”




  Susan Wojcicki用了包括但不限于以下几种手法来增强自己观点的说服力(原文附后):

  技巧一:个人经历(personal experience/anecdote)




  技巧二:对调查或研究结果等的引用(citation of research and surveys)


  比如,在第四段,作者引用了联合国的一项调查,她提到:“According to a survey released in May by the United Nations’International Labor Organization, the U.S. is the only country in the developed world that doesn’t offer government-mandated paid maternity leave.”以及第五段,她引用了美国劳工部的数据, “According to the Labor Department, that patchwork of corporate and state benefits covers only 12% of private workers. ”




  较为明显的是,作者用了对比(contrast),来说明带薪休假的好处: “Mothers were able to take the time they needed to bond with their babies and return to their jobs feeling confident and ready. And it’s much better for Google’s bottom line—to avoid costly turnover, and to retain the valued expertise, skills and perspective of our employees who are mothers.”


  Paid Maternity Leave Is Good for Business

  by Susan Wojcicki

  1. I was Google’s first employee to go on maternity leave. In 1999, I joined the startup that founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin had recently started in my garage. I was four months pregnant. At the time the company had no revenue and only 15 employees, almost all of whom were male. Joining a startup pregnant with my first child was risky, but Larry and Sergey assured me I’d have their support.

  2. This month, I’ll go on maternity leave once again—my fifth time—joining the nearly 5,000 women who have done so since I joined Google. And though I’m now CEO of YouTube (which is owned by Google), I’ll be entitled to the same benefits as every single woman at the company who has a baby: 18 weeks of paid maternity leave.

  3. Having experienced how valuable paid maternity leave is to me, my family and my career, I never thought of it as a privilege. But the sad truth is that paid maternity leave is rare in America, and the U.S. lags behind the rest of the world in providing for the needs of pregnant women and new mothers.

  4. According to a survey released in May by the United Nations’ International Labor Organization, the U.S. is the only country in the developed world that doesn’t offer government-mandated paid maternity leave. Every other developed country offers paid maternity leave benefits through social-security programs, so businesses don’t have to shoulder the entire cost. Paid maternity leave isn’t just a First World perk—the U.S. is one of only two countries of the 185 surveyed that does not offer it. The other is Papua New Guinea.

  5. There are two ways women in America can receive paid maternity leave. They can work for a generous employer that provides it as a benefit. Or they can live in one of the few states—California, Hawaii, New Jersey, New York and Rhode Island—that have publicly funded paid-maternity-leave laws. According to the Labor Department, that patchwork of corporate and state benefits covers only 12% of private workers. Low-wage earners, those in the bottom income quartile, have it much worse: only 5% get any paid maternity leave. The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 is a step in the right direction, but it is unpaid and doesn’t cover half the working women in the U.S.

  6. In study after study, the ILO and other labor and health organizations have shown how harmful a lack of paid maternity leave can be for mothers and their babies. Many times when faced with insufficient maternity leave, mothers choose to drop out of the workforce, leading to a considerable loss of income during a woman’s most productive years. Or it can force a woman back to work too quickly, with adverse effects on her and her child’s health.

  7. A quarter of all women in the U.S. return to work fewer than 10 days after giving birth, leaving them less time to bond with their children, making breast-feeding more difficult and increasing their risk of postpartum depression. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, suboptimal breast-feeding causes higher rates of infant illness and hospitalization that cost billions of dollars annually.

  8. Paid maternity leave is also good for business. After California instituted paid medical leave, a survey in 2011 by the Center for Economic and Policy Research found that 91% of employers said the policy either boosted profits or had no effect. They also noted improved productivity, higher morale and reduced turnover.

  9. That last point is one we’ve seen at Google. When we increased paid maternity leave to 18 from 12 weeks in 2007, the rate at which new moms left Google fell by 50%. (We also increased paternity leave to 12 weeks from seven, as we know that also has a positive effect on families and our business.) Mothers were able to take the time they needed to bond with their babies and return to their jobs feeling confident and ready. And it’s much better for Google’s bottom line—to avoid costly turnover, and to retain the valued expertise, skills and perspective of our employees who are mothers.

  10. Best of all, mothers come back to the workforce with new insights. I know from experience that being a mother gave me a broader sense of purpose, more compassion and a better ability to prioritize and get things done efficiently. It also helped me understand the specific needs and concerns of mothers, who make most household spending decisions and control more than $2 trillion of purchasing power in the U.S.

  11. I’ve been lucky to have the support of a company that values motherhood as much as Google. And I’ve been lucky to live in a state like California that supports working mothers. But support for motherhood shouldn’t be a matter of luck; it should be a matter of course. Paid maternity leave is good for mothers, families and business. America should have the good sense to join nearly every other country in providing it.




  Errors               Score

  -1                    770

  -2                    760 or 750

  -3                    740

  -4                    730

  -5                    710

  -6                    700

  -7                    690

  -8                    690








  本次12月7日结束的SAT亚太卷的语法难度中等偏上, 相较近几次考试难度有所上升. 虽然考试的题型比较常规,篇章理解题目的增加加高了对考生理解文章细节要求, 总体时间比较紧迫。

  本次考试的考点比较常规,考点搭配比较均衡, 基本没有出现新奇特的考点。但是这次考试对细节和文章理解的要求比较高,这就使得考试的难度处在中等偏上。


  Passage 1 Location matters


  Passage 2 Hip Hop meets native American tradition


  Passage 3 UNCLOS and the arctic


  Passage 4 A clothes career

  主要讲述服装设计师的商业模式和发展。Jason Wu为女明星制作的颁奖典礼的礼服精美华丽,设计理念得到了大家认同,从而名声大噪,自己的品牌的发展也这个品牌也渐渐进入时尚界的视野,名声大噪,欣欣向荣。Jason Wu的事例揭示了在当今社会,要想取得斐然成绩,一方面要有真才实学,另一方面还要学会营销自己。


  1夯实基础,重点复习句子结构, 主谓一致, 名词所有格及标点(逗号, 破折号, 括号)等高频的考点。

  目前难点集中在标点题和动词题, 题型常规但对细节要求较高, 科技文中在一些专有名词上设计标点题, 对考生理解文本含义的要求较高。

  2 篇章题方面,主要考察论点论据间的对应关系, 文章主旨题, 合并句子题, 句子排序题及简洁性原则等. 其中文章主旨题和论点论据的对应关系题目多次出现。

  篇章题考察的重点放在对文本的理解上, 体现在文章段落结构和主旨以及论点论据对应关系, 考生必须在对文章和段落结构有清晰的把握的前提下, 才能在有限的时间内做对题目。



  Passage 1 文学

  The Inheritance of Exile: Stories from South Philly by Susan Muaddi Darraj



 Passage 2 历史双篇

  1 Address in New York City at the Cornerstone Laying of the United Nations Building

  2 Some Reflections on Peace in Our Time







 Passage 3 科学文章

  Oxygen: The Molecule that Made the World

  文章开头介绍出Carboniferous(石炭纪)有些巨型生物giants,作者猜测可能跟氧气水平有关,但缺乏现代生态学证据。传统观点认为polar gigantism是由于体型和温度的反比关系造成的,但是这么直接的关系无法很好解释polar gigantism。


  Passage4 社科文章

  Democracy for Realists:Why Elections Do Not Produce Responsive Government


  曾有学者认为选民的目光短浅会引发political business cycle,即在任总统想激发经济增长,从而产生不良的社会影响。但大量研究证实由于多种原因,两者关系并没有这么清晰。

  其后研究人员想要证实经济表现是否会因为在任总统听从目光短浅的选民所受影响,结果是electoral cycle与收入增长的关系更大,因为选民对收入增长的反应更强烈,而且收入增长更容易被操控。

  Passage 5 科学文章

  The Myth of Antioxidants




  Passage 1 文学

  Dreaming in Cuban

  女主是一名艺术生,应其母亲的要求在bakery opening之前画画。但是女主特别注重隐私,开始担心母亲会半夜进到她房间偷看画,所以设计了陷阱以便于发现她是否真的进来。但是醒来检查“陷阱”,发现母亲并没有偷看。



  题目1:Which choice best describes the overall structure of the passage?

  答案:Suspense about a revelation builds to a surprising climax.

  题目2:Which choice best supports the idea that Pilar’s fear that her mother will secretly look at her painting is based on prior experience?

  答案:Lines 2-3 (“After all, her record doesn’t exactly inspire confidence.’)

  题目3:The main purpose of the second paragraph (lines 9-10) is to

  答案:Illustrate Pilar’s anxieties about her mother’s spying and her awareness that those anxieties may be unfounded.

  题目4:Based on the passage, which choice best describes how Pliar manages her feelings the night before her painting is unveiled?

  答案:She attempts to convince herself that if her mother is upset about the painting, that would be her mother’s fault, since she did not want to do the painting in the first place.

  题目5:Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

  答案:Lines 36-38 (“I try to calm down… cornered me into doing this painting.”)

  Passage 2历史双篇

  1 Albert Einstein Warns of Dangers in Nuclear Arms Race

  2 Address to the Nation on Defense and National Security




  Darwinian Agriculture: How Understanding Evolution Can Improve Agriculture




  R’ Is For Red: Common Words Share Similar Sounds in Many Languages



 Passage5 科学文章

  Nature’s Clocks: How Scientists Measure the Age of Almost Everything

  本文主要通过carbon确定生命起源的时间。科学家们一直对生命的早期迹象非常感兴趣。他们认为生命迹象在Greenland rocks能找到答案。但是Greenland rocks太老了,不好确定是原来就sedimentary,还是igneous rocks。

  文章第二部分主要阐述通过碳12和碳13同位素来做研究的原理。得到的结果是Greenland samples确实显示了生命迹象。若此为真,就能大概确定sediments的年纪,从而知道地球上的生命最早是什么时候出现的。














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