THIRTY-TWO HOURS AFTER Hattie and her mother and sisters creptthrough the Georgia woods to thetrain station, thirty-two hours on hard seatsin the commotion of the Negro car, Hattie wasstartled from a light sleep by thetrain conductor’s bellow, “Broad StreetStation,Philadelphia!” Hattie clambered from the train,her skirt still hemmed with Georgia mud, thedream of Philadelphia round as amarble in her mouth and the fear of it a needle in her chest.Hattie and Mama,Pearl and Marion climbed the steps from the train platform up into the mainhallof the station. It was dim despite the midday sun. The domed roof arched.Pigeons cooed inthe rafters. Hattie was only fourteen then, slim as a finger.She stood with her mother andsisters at the crowd’sedge, the four of them waiting for a break in the flow of people sothey toomight move toward the double doors at the far end of the station. Hattiestepped intothe multitude. Mama called, “Come back! You’ll be lost in all those people. You’ll belost!” Hattie looked back in panic; she thought her mother was rightbehind her. The crowd wastoo thick for her to turn back, and she was bornealong on the current of people. She gainedthe double doors and was pushed outonto a long sidewalk that ran the length of the station.
The main thoroughfare was congested with more people than Hattiehad ever seen in one place.The sun was high. Automobile exhaust hung in the airalongside the tar smell of asphaltsoftening in the heat and the sickening odorof garbage rotting. Wheels rumbled on the pavingstones, engines revved,paperboys called the headlines. Across the street a man in dirtyclothes stoodon the corner wailing a song, his hands at his sides, palms upturned.Hattieresisted the urge to cover her ears to block the rushing city sounds. Shesmelled the absenceof trees before she saw it. Things were bigger inPhiladelphia—that was true—and therewasmore of everything, too much of everything. But Hattie did not see apromised land in thistumult. It was, she thought, only Atlanta on a largerscale. She could manage it. But even asshe declared herself adequate to thecity, her knees knocked under her skirt and sweat rolleddown her back. Ahundred people had passed her in the few moments she’dbeen standing outside,but none of them were her mother and sisters. Hattie’s eyes hurt with the effort of scanningthe faces of the passersby.
A cart at the end of the sidewalk caught her eye. Hattie had neverseen a flower vendor’scart. A white man sat on a stool with hisshirtsleeves rolled and his hat tipped forwardagainst the sun. Hattie set hersatchel on the sidewalk and wiped her sweaty palms on herskirt. A Negro womanapproached the cart. She indicated a bunch of flowers. The white manstood—he did not hesitate, his body didn’t contortinto a posture of menace—and took theflowers from abucket. Before wrapping them in paper, he shook the water gently from thestems.The Negro woman handed him the money. Had their hands brushed?
As the woman with the flowers took her change and moved to put itin her purse, she upset threeof the flower arrangements. Vases and blossomstumbled from the cart and crashed on to thepavement. Hattie stiffened, waitingfor the inevitable explosion. She waited for the otherNegroes to step back andaway from the object of the violence that was surely coming. Shewaited for themoment in which she would have to shield her eyes from the woman andwhateverhorror would ensue. The vendor stooped to pick up the mess. The Negrowoman gestured
apologetically and reached into her purse again, presumably to payfor what she’d damaged. Ina couple of minutes it was allsettled, and the woman walked on down the street with her nosein the paper coneof flowers, as if nothing had happened.
Hattie looked more closely at the crowd on the sidewalk. TheNegroes did not step into thegutters to let the whites pass and they did notstare doggedly at their own feet. Four Negrogirls walked by, teenagers likeHattie, chatting to one another. Just girls in conversation,giggling and easy,the way only white girls walked and talked in the city streets ofGeorgia.Hattie leaned forward to watch them progress down the block. At last,her mother and sistersexited the station and came to stand next to her. “Mama,” Hattie said. “I’llnever go back.Never.”
作者Ayana Mathis，原文出自于The Twelve Tribes of Hattie. This passage is set in 1923。
1、主旨题Which choicecan best summarize the passage?
2、目的题，考查文章第一段词组“roundas a marble in her mouth”和”a needle in her chest”的效果和目的;
7、黑人妇女和白人花商之间的冲突在即，Hattie认为many black people对此会是什么反应;
9、目的题，文章最后一段话第一句Hattielooks more closely at the crowds on the street的作用;
10、文章最后一段，文章将费城街上的四个谈笑的black girls和佐治亚街上的white girls做了怎样的对比。
It is true, then, that there was too muchfoundation for the representations of those satirists and dramatists who heldup the character of the English Nabob to the derision and hatred of a formergeneration. It is true that some disgraceful intrigues, some unjust and cruelwars, some instances of odious perfidy and avarice, stain the annals of ourEastern Empire. It is true that the duties of government and legislation werelong wholly neglected or carelessly performed. It is true that when theconquerors at length began to apply themselves in earnest to the discharge oftheir high functions, they committed the errors natural to rulers who were butimperfectly acquainted with the language and manners of their subjects. It istrue that some plans, which were dictated by the purest and most benevolentfeelings, have not been attended by the desired success. It is true that Indiasuffers to this day from a heavy burden of taxation and from a defective systemof law. It is true, I fear, that in those states which are connected with us bysubsidiary alliance, all the evils of oriental despotism have too frequentlyshown themselves in their most loathsome and destructive form.
[But nowadays its affairs are much improved, and still improving]
[7a] All this is true. Yet in the historyand in the present state of our Indian Empire I see ample reason for exultationand for a good hope.
[7b] I see that we have established orderwhere we found confusion. I see that the petty dynasties which were generatedby the corruption of the great Mahometan Empire, and which, a century ago, keptall India in constant agitation, have been quelled by one overwhelming power. Isee that the predatory tribes, which, in the middle of the last century, passedannually over the harvests of India with the destructive rapidity of ahurricane, have quailed before the valour of a braver and sterner race, havebeen vanquished, scattered, hunted to their strongholds, and either extirpatedby the English sword, or compelled to exchange the pursuits of rapine for thoseof industry.
[7c] I look back for many years; and I seescarcely a trace of the vices which blemished the splendid fame of the firstconquerors of Bengal. I see peace studiously preserved. I see faith inviolablymaintained towards feeble and dependent states. I see confidence graduallyinfused into the minds of suspicious neighbours. I see the horrors of warmitigated by the chivalrous and Christian spirit of Europe. I see examples ofmoderation and clemency, such as I should seek in vain in the annals of anyother victorious and dominant nation. I see captive tyrants, whose treacheryand cruelty might have excused a severe retribution, living in security,comfort, and dignity, under the protection of the government which theylaboured to destroy.
[7d] I see a large body of civil andmilitary functionaries resembling in nothing but capacity and valour thoseadventurers who, seventy years ago, came hither, laden with wealth and infamy,to parade before our fathers the plundered treasures of Bengal and Tanjore. Ireflect with pride that to the doubtful splendour which surrounds the memory ofHastings and of Clive, we can oppose the spotless glory of Elphinstone andMunro. I contemplate with reverence and delight the honourable poverty which isthe evidence of rectitude firmly maintained amidst strong temptations. Irejoice to see my countrymen, after ruling millions of subjects, aftercommanding victorious armies, after dictating terms of peace at the gates ofhostile capitals, after administering the revenues of great provinces, afterjudging the causes of wealthy Zemindars, after residing at the courts oftributary Kings, return to their native land with no more than a decentcompetence.
1、问的是p1文章的main focus 是如何转移的。需要通读全文才能解题，但是题目难度不大：只要抓住段落大意和文章的逻辑词，就能解题：文章先抑后扬，先说印度政治状况混乱，后提到政府其实取得了较好成果;
2、问原文何处支撑了“British unified India” 难度不大，只要将四个选项带入。就会发现原文有一句：(i see…dependent states);
3、词汇题：attend 和哪个词意思接近：frequented / maintain/replaced/accompanied;
5、问第二篇的段落大意：文章主旨体现非常清晰鲜明：the British ruined our country;
6、问印度人民对英国统治最初的态度：原文第二篇第3-5句话直接提现：supried ，即一开始认为英国是for their good，为他们着想;
10、问p2作者如何看p1作者所说的“some plan” 难度不大：作者立场很容易看出，reject 作者在第二段认为英国是利用华丽的外衣来实现一国私欲;
In the spring of 1879, Hermann Lau shot two white-winged choughs,Corcorax melanorhamphos, off their nest in Queensland, Australia. He watched asadditional choughs continued to attend the nest, proving that a cooperativegroup shared parental care ( 1). Since then, cooperatively breeding birds havehad a starring role in efforts to explain the evolution of complex animalsocieties. We now know that “helpersat-the-nest” who forgo reproduction areoften relatives of the breeding pair. Genetic payoff is, thus, one of severaladvantages that helpers can gain from their super? cially altruistic behavior (2). On page 1506 of this issue, Feeney et al. ( 3) show that collective defenseagainst brood parasites (see the ? gure) can enhance such bene? ts ofcooperation. Why do some bird species cooperate and others do not? Globalanalyses have shown that cooperative breeding (now known from 9% of species) isassociated with a slow pace of life (characterized by high survival rates andlow turnover of breeding territories) ( 4), monogamy (which facilitates kinselection within families) ( 5), and unpredictable environments (such as aridzones) that might favor cooperation as a bet-hedging strategy ( 6). But thesefactors often fail to predict the incidence of cooperation among relatedspecies or within geographical regions ( 7). Feeney et al.’s study is built onthe premise that brood parasitism—reproductive cheating by species such ascuckoos and cowbirds, which exploit other birds to raise their young—is asevere selection pressure on their hosts’ breeding strategies. Parasitizedparents typically not only lose their current offspring but also waste a wholebreeding season raising a demanding impostor. The best way to avoid parasitismis to repel adult parasites from the nest. Feeney et al. show that socialitycan be pivotal to this process. The authors begin by unfolding a new map. Usingdata compiled by BirdLife International, they show that the global distributionof cooperatively breeding birds overlaps strikingly with that of broodparasites. This overlap need not re? ect a causal relationship:
The same unpredictable environments thatfavor cooperation could also favor alternative breeding strategies such asparasitism. However, the authors go on to show that even within geographicalregions rich in both parasites and cooperators—Australia and southern Africa—cooperativebreeders are much more likely than noncooperative species to be targeted bybrood parasites. To determine the reasons for this correlation, Feeney et al.studied cooperative breeding in superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) inAustralia. Horsfield’s bronze-cuckoos (Chalcites basalis) should bene? t fromtargeting larger groups of fairy-wrens because more helpers mean faster chickgrowth. Yet, data from a 6-year field study show that in practice, cuckoosrarely experience this advantage, because larger groups of fairywrens much moreeffectively detect and repel egg-laying intrusions by cuckoo females,mobilizing group defenses with a cuckoospeci? c alarm call. Thus, cooperationand parasitism could reciprocally in? uence one another: Cooperators might bemore attractive targets because they make better foster parents, but once
exploited by parasites, they are alsobetter able to ? ght back, helping cooperation to persist ( 8). Feeney et al. ?nd that superior anticuckoo defenses in larger groups account for 0.2 moreyoung ? edged per season on average than smaller groups—a substantial boostgiven the fairy-wrens’ low annual fecundity. These results show convincinglythat defense against brood parasites augments the bene? ts of helping, promotingthe persistence of cooperation. But as the authors note, they cannot revealwhat caused cooperation to evolve initially. Brood parasitism alone cannotresolve the question of why some birds breed cooperatively. For example,cooperative king? shers and bee-eaters are heavily parasitized in Africa butnot in Australasia, showing that other advantages of helping behavior are suf?cient for cooperation to persist. But we should take parasitism seriously as animportant force in a cooperative life. Indeed, it may provide a mechanismcontributing to the previously discovered global correlates of cooperation (4–6). Some insight into the likely order of evolution might come from furthercomparative predictions. For instance, if cooperation arose fi rst as a defenseagainst parasitism, cooperators may be most prevalent among hosts that relyheavily on repelling adult parasites, rather than on antiparasite strategies atlater reproductive stages, such as egg or chick discrimination ( 9). Incontrast, if parasites target existing cooperators because they providesuperior care, this should be especially true of parasites whose chicks havethe most pressing needs—for instance, those in parasitic families with largebody size relative to their hosts or those whose chicks do not kill host youngand therefore must share their foster parents’ care. Could there be a similarassociation between cooperation and parasitism among other highly socialanimals? Cooperation in mammals clearly persists irrespective of parasitism, giventhat there are no known brood-parasitic mammals (perhaps because it would bediffi cult for a mammal to insert live young into another’s care). Butrepelling parasitic egg-laying intrusions is crucial to many hosts of sociallyparasitic insects and has shaped sophisticated adaptations and counterdefensesfor and against brute force and secrecy ( 10). It will be fascinating toexplore how selection for antiparasitic defense has interacted with monogamyand defensible resources as forces favoring kin-selected cooperation ininvertebrates, touching on an active debate in evolutionary biology. Answers tosuch comparative questions will ultimately be limited by our knowledge ofnatural history. The work by Feeney et al. is testament to the evolutionaryinsights enabled by careful long-term fi eld studies, together with thecumulative legacy of those naturalists who made the unglamorous effort torecord and publish observations of real animals in real places.
IF YOU wantsomething done, the saying goes, give it to a busy person. It is an odd way toguarantee hitting deadlines. But a paper recentlypublished in the Journal of Consumer Research suggestsit may, in fact, be true—as long as the busy person conceptualises the deadlinein the right way.
Yanping Tu ofthe University of Chicago and Dilip Soman of the University of Toronto examinedhow individuals go about both thinking about and completing tasks. Previousstudies have shown that such activity progresses through four distinct phases:pre-decision, post-decision (but pre-action), action and review. It is thoughtthat what motivates the shift from the decision-making stages to thedoing-something stage is a change in mindset.
Human beings area deliberative sort, weighing the pros and cons of future actions and remainingopen to other ideas and influences. However, once a decision is taken, the mindbecomes more "implemental" and focuses on the task at hand. “Themindset towards ‘where can I get a sandwich’,” explains Ms Tu, “is moreimplemental than the mindset towards ‘should I get a sandwich or not?’"
Ms Tu and DrSoman advise in their paper that "the key step in getting things done isto get started." But what drives that? They believe the key that unlocksthe implemental mode lies in how people categorise time. They suggest thattasks are more likely to be viewed with an implemental mindset if an imposed deadlineis cognitively linked to "now"—a so-called like-the-presentscenario. That might be a future date within the same month or calendar year,or pegged to an event with a familiar spot in the mind's timeline (being givena task at Christmas, say, with a deadline of Easter). Conversely, they suggest,a deadline placed outside such mental constructs (being"unlike-the-present") exists merely as a circle on a calendar, and assuch is more likely to be considered deliberatively and then ignored until thelast minute.
To flesh outthis idea, the pair carried out five sets of tests, with volunteers rangingfrom farmers in India to undergraduate students in Toronto. In one test,the farmers were offered a financial incentive to open a bank account and makea deposit within six months. The researchers predicted those approached in Junewould consider a deadline before December 31st as like-the-present. Thoseapproached in July, by contrast, received a deadline into the next year, andwere expected to think of their deadline as unlike-the-present. The distinctionworked. Those with a deadline in the same year were nearly four times morelikely to open the account immediately as those for whom the deadline lay inthe following year. Arbitrary though calendars may be in dividing uptime's continuous flow, they influence the way humans think about time.
The effect canmanifest itself in even subtler ways. In another set of experiments,undergraduate students were given a calendar on a Wednesday and were asked tosuggest an appropriate day to carry out certain tasks before the followingSunday. The trick was that some were given a calendar with all of the weekdayscoloured purple, with weekends in beige (making a visual distinction between aWednesday and the following Sunday). Others were given a calendar in whichevery other week, Monday to Sunday, was a solid colour (meaning that aWednesday and the following Sunday were thus in the same week, and in the samecolour). Even this minor visual cue affected how like- or unlike-the-presentthe respondents tended to view task priorities.
These and otherbits of framing and trickery in the research support the same thesis: thatmaking people link a future event to today triggers an implemental response,regardless of how far in the future the deadline actually lies. If the journeyof 1,000 miles starts with a single step, the authors might suggest that youtake that step before this time next week.
Ancient magma plumbing found buried below moon'slargest dark spot
By Eric Hand Oct. 1, 2014 ,1:00 PM
Scientists have found a nearly squarepeg underneath a round hole—on the moon. Several kilometers below OceanusProcellarum, the largest dark spot on the moon’s near side, scientists havediscovered a giant rectangle thought to be the remnants of a geologicalplumbing system that spilled lava across the moon about 3.5 billion years ago.The features are similar to rift valleys on Earth—regions where the crust iscooling, contracting, and ripping apart. Their existence shows that the moon,early in its history, experienced tectonic and volcanic activity normallyassociated with much bigger planets.
“We’re realizingthat the early moon was a much more dynamic place than we thought,” saysJeffrey Andrews-Hanna, a planetary scientist at the Colorado School of Mines inGolden and lead author of a new study of the Procellarum’s geology. Thediscovery also casts doubt on the decades-old theory that the circularProcellarum region is a basin, or giant crater, created when a large asteroidslammed into the moon. “We don’t expect a basin rim to have corners,”Andrews-Hanna says.
The work isbased on data gathered by GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory), apair of NASA spacecraft that orbited the moon in 2012. Sensitive to tinyvariations in the gravitational tug of the moon, GRAIL mapped densityvariations below the surface (because regions of higher density produceslightly higher gravitational forces). Below known impact basins, GRAIL foundthe expected ringlike patterns, but underneath the Procellarum region, themysterious rectangle emerged. “It was a striking pattern that demanded anexplanation,” Andrews-Hanna says.
Scientistsalready know that the Procellarum region is rich in radioactive elements thatbillions of years ago would have produced excess heat. The study team theorizesthat as this region cooled, the rock would have cracked in geometricalpatterns, like honeycomb patterns seen on Earth in basalt formations, but on amuch larger scale. In a study published today in Nature, the researcherspropose that these cracks eventually grew into rift valleys, wheremagma from the moon’s mantle welled up and pushed apart blocks of crust. Lava spilledout and paved over the Oceanus Procellarum, creating the dark spot that is seentoday. The extra weight of this dense material would have caused the wholeregion to sink slightly and form the topographic low that has made theProcellarum seem like a basin.
With thediscovery, the moon joins Earth, Mars, and Venus as solar system bodies withmapped examples of rifting. There are also similar features near the south poleof Enceladus, the moon of Saturn that is spewing water into space from cracksin an ice shell.
Andrews-Hannaand colleagues have made a good case, says Herbert Frey, a planetary scientistat NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, even though thenewly described features are surprising. The moon is not big enough to have thesame strong convective cooling process that Earth has in its interior, heexplains, and ordinarily convection is one of the main mechanisms thought tolead to large-scale rifting. So just what caused the rifting remains unclear.“It just means the moon continues to surprise us,” he says. Frey adds that aremaining mystery is why the rectangular features were found only beneathOceanus Procellarum. Even if the rifting is explained by the excess radioactiveelements, there is still no definitive explanation for why only the near sideof the moon ended up enriched.
The discoverycould also be a death knell for the impact theory for Oceanus Procellarum, anidea first put forth in the early 1970s. A basin there would have been thelargest on the moon—larger than the South Pole–Aitken Basin—and second in thesolar system only to the Borealis Basin on Mars, which covers the planet’sentire northern hemisphere.
RyosukeNakamura, a researcher at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Scienceand Technology in Tsukuba, Japan, is still not convinced that an impact can beruled out. In 2012, he and his colleagues published a paper in NatureGeosciencethat found compositional evidence for an impactwithin Procellarum—a type of pyroxene mineral that is found in other, knownimpact basins such as South Pole–Aitken and is associated with the melting orexcavation of mantle rock from an asteroid impact.
In response tothe current study, Nakamura says that the features in the southwestern cornerof the Procellarum region look to be circular rather than rectangular, andstill consistent with an impact. But Frey, who has long been skeptical of theimpact theory, says that the features are as clear as day, and not what you’dexpect underneath a basin. “That looks like a rectangle to me.”
2、为什么作者说发现新的长方形地貌的时候还要提及 geologic plumbing sysyem?是为了进一步说明该地域的地址形态;