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详细的SAT语法动词和时态(下)

2017/5/3 15:18:19来源:互联网作者:上海新航道

摘要:动词是表述一个动作的词汇,特殊的动词有情态动词、助动词。与汉语不同的是英语中的动词对于单复数和时态非常重视,单复数需要和相对应的主语(也就是动作的施力者)的单复数保持一致,时态上需要考虑的内容比较多:动作发生的时间,动作对于现在的影响,是否为普遍规律。

  上一篇小编分享的是:详细的SAT语法动词和时态(上)

  动词是表述一个动作的词汇,特殊的动词有情态动词、助动词。与汉语不同的是英语中的动词对于单复数和时态非常重视,单复数需要和相对应的主语(也就是动作的施力者)的单复数保持一致,时态上需要考虑的内容比较多:动作发生的时间,动作对于现在的影响,是否为普遍规律。

  知识点5

  谓语动词通常状况下都是在谓语动词后面的,但是这并不是绝对情况。有的时候句子通过改变句子成分的顺序可以让主语出现在谓语动词后面,这个时候如何选择对应的谓语动词就会困难。有一个简单的方法就是自己改写再进行还原。如原句:

  Near those buildings sit a lonely house, inhabited by squatters.

  不知道正确与否的情况下,可以先自己进行改写然后再还原成原句类似的形式

  改写的是A lonely house, inhabited by squatters, sits near those buildings.

  再还原Near those buildings sits a lonely house, inhabited by squatters.

  例题5

  用这个改写的方法判断下面句子的正确性。

  There is a young man and an older woman at the bus stop.

  解析5

  很多考生在记忆就近原则的时候往往还加上一个there be句型,这次改写就可以说明there be句型到底符合不符合就近原则。

  改写的句子是A young man and an older woman are there at the bus stop.

  还原后就是There are a young man and an older woman at the bus stop.

  知识点6

  常见的比较confusing的主语表达对应的谓语动词单复数情况

预览

  例题6

  判断下面句子是否主谓一致,是否是合适的谓语,如果不是,请修改。

  1. The traveling salesman was dismayed to learn that neither his sons nor his daughter were

  interested in moving.

  2. I was so thirsty that either of the two drinks were fine with me.

  3. A venomous snake designated the emblem of the rebellion by the insurgency.

  4. A number of players on the team have improved since last season.

  5. Jack, along with some of his closest friends, is sharing a limo to the prom.

  6. The recent string of burglaries, in addition to poor building maintenance, have inspired the outspoken resident to call a tenants meeting.

  7. There is, according to my doctor, many courses of treatment available to me.

  8. After all the gardening we did, the sun shining on the flowerbeds make a beautiful sight.

  9. The placement of the unusual artwork in the mansion's various rooms was impressive.

  10. A new textbook focused on recent advances in artificial intelligence assigned by our instructor.

  11. Just around the corner is a fantastic bakery and a small supermarket.

  12. Planting all these seeds is more involved than I thought.

  13. Whoever rented these movies has to take them back before midnight.

  14. Tired of practicing, the orchestra decide to walk out on their astonished conductor.

  15. The proliferation of computer games designed to involve many players at once were first developed before the widespread availability of high-speed internet connections.解析6

  1. 第一个was使用正确,第二个were不正确,nor应该就近,靠近的是his daughter单数名词,应该改作The traveling salesman was dismayed to learn that neither his sons nor his daughter was interested in moving.

  2. 第一个was正确,第二个were不对,因为从句的主语是either,谓语动词应该是单数。句子改为I was so thirsty that either of the two drinks was fine with me.

  3. 第一个designated 不正确,应该改作was designated因为designate是一个人才能做动作的谓语动词,蛇是对象,应该是被动语态。改A venomous snake was designated the emblem of the rebellion by the insurgency.

  4. 正确,a number of对应复数谓语动词。

  5. 正确,along with是additive phrase,谓语动词参照被修饰的主语。

  6. 第一个have inspired不对,因为string是单数名词,The recent string of burglaries, in addition to poor building maintenance, has inspired the outspoken resident to call a tenants meeting.

  7. 第一个is不对,可以改变语序According to my doctor, many courses of treatment are there available to me. 因此应该为There are, according to my doctor, many courses of treatment available to me.

  8. 第一个make不对,因为sun shining这个属于主语从句,谓语动词一定是单数。应该改为After all the gardening we did, the sun shining on the flowerbeds makes a beautiful sight.

  9. 正确,主语是the placement单数名词。

  10. 第一个assigned不正确,因为该谓语动词的主语应该是人,但是这里主语却不是人,应该被动语态。应该改为A new textbook focused on recent advances in artificial intelligence was assigned by our instructor.11. 第一个is不对,调整语序,a fantastic bakery and a small supermarket are just around the corner.因此正确的表达为Just around the corner are fantastic bakery and a small supermarket.

  12. 正确,现在分词做主语,谓语动词单数。

  13. 正确,主语是从句,谓语动词单数。14. 第一个decide不正确,orchestra是集体名词,谓语动词单数,应该改为Tired of practicing, the orchestra decides to walk out on its astonished conductor.

  15. 修饰games的没有问题,该句的问题在于主语是proliferation, 但是从句意来看并非如此。应该改为Computer games designed to involve many players at once have proliferated; such games were first developed before the widespread availability of high-speed internet connection.

  知识点7

  SAT语法考点中,经常出现的就是时态问题了。常见的时态有一般现在时态,一般过去时态,一般将来时态,现在进行时态,现在完成时态,过去完成时态,过去进行时态这七种,英语中一共有十六种时态,但是大多复杂的时态和SAT考试没有关系。

预览

  知识点8

  一般现在时态通常用在以下情况:

  A) 表示现阶段或经常性的动作状态,如

  He goes to school by bike every day.

  B) 表示客观真理,如

  The earth goes around the sun.

  C) 表示计划,决定,时刻表,如

  The train leaves at 17:40.

  D) 用在时间、条件、方式、让步状语从句表示将要发生的动作。

  If you speak slowly, I understand.

  If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, we’ll go on a picnic.

  一般过去时,表示过去的事情,过去的习惯,常在以下情况使用

  A) 表示过去完成的事情或者存在的状态,如

  I met him last month.

  She looked well when I last saw her.

  B) 描述几个相继发生的动作,如

  I always got up too late, washed my face, had a quick breakfast and hurried to school.

  一般将来时,表示一个将要发生的动作或者状态。

  A) 表示将要发生的事情,如

  I will see you tomorrow.

  B) 表示打算准备做某件事,如

  He is going to be a doctor when he grows up.

  C) 即将

  She is about to go home.

  D) 表示计划决定要求

  You are to get here before 6.

  现在进行时,表示说话时或者现阶段内正在进行的动作或者存在的状态。

  A) 说话时动作正在进行

  I am a writing a letter.

  B) 表示现阶段内正在进行的动作

  The workers are building a building.

  C) 表示已经具体的计划,安排

  She is leaving for Beijing this evening.

  D) 表示特定的感情色彩

  We are looking forward to seeing you again.

  现在完成时

  A) 表示动作已经发生,动作的结果对于现在仍然有影响,经常与already, yet, now, just, by this time连用。

  He has phoned me about the theft.

  He has turned off the light.

  B) 表示一个动作在过去发生一直持续到现在

  I have learned English for more than 6 years.

  C) 强调持续性

  (correct) He has been in Beijing for 5 years.

  (incorrect) He has come to Beijing for 5 years.

  D注意since引导的从句如果是持续性动词,表示这行为的终止,如果是瞬间动词,表示这个行为的开始。

  It’s weeks since I feel ill. 我生病好几周了。

  It’s weeks since I was ill. 我病好了好几周了。

  过去进行时

  A) 过去某时正在进行的时态或者动作。

  They were singing songs from seven to nine last night.

  B) 用when引导的时间状语从句表示某一个时刻,一个动作发生时,另一个动作正在进行,或者某一个动作正在进行时突然发生另一件事。

  It was raining when they arrived at the station.

  C) 有while引导的时间状语从句,常表示过去某一时刻发生的事情是可以延续的或者同时发生的,此时,主句和从句的谓语动词都可用过去进行时。

  He as selling the newspaper while he was waiting for the bus.

  过去完成时

  A)表示某一个动作或者状态在过去某一时间或者动作之前已经完成或者结束

  When I woke up, it had stopped raining.

  B)表示某一个动作或者状态在某时之前已经开始,一直延续到这一过去时间,并且动作尚未结束仍然有继续下去的可能。

  By the end of last year, he had worked in the factory for 20 years.

  C)用于hardly when, no sooner than刚,就或者It was the first time that等句型中

  We had no sooner left the room than they began to talk about him,

  We had hardly begun when we were told to stop.

  It was the first time that he had ever spoken to me in such a tune.

  例题7

  Genetically-modified agricultural products are more or less the norm today, and the achievements in genetically-modified agriculture are all the work of bioinformatics.

  A. NO CHANGE

  B. Is

  C. Can be

  D. Would have been

  解析7

  句子中间有and作为连接两个句子的连词,因此这个划线部分谓语动词对应的真正的主语是the achievements是复数名词,因此B单数形式的谓语动词是错误的。

  剩下的需要看时态,and说明了前后的句子是并列关系,前一句中的时态是一般现在时态,无论是根据平行,还是根据在一个句子中应该保持时态一致,都应该在此处继续选择一般现在时态。因此CD也不对

  因此A

  例题8

  Both the forager bees and the scout plays important roles in the process of collecting nectar. Scouts must find the best locations for nectar. Scouts must also be cautious of sites with damaged flowers or deceased bees, as these may be signs of predators.

  A. NO CHANGE

  B. And the scout play important

  C. And the stout were playing important

  D. And the stout was playing important

  解析8

  首先判断谓语动词的单复数,主语是both the forager bees and the scout是复数名词,因此谓语动词应该也采取复数形式。AD都是单数形式,错误

  再看时态,后面的句子都是一般现在时态,句子说的是一般的规律性的内容,适合使用一般现在时态。因此C也不恰当。

  因此B

  知识点9

  在主谓一致的时候我们说到主谓一致的一个方面是主语和谓语的搭配要make sense,但是有的时候我们需要突出宾语部分,所以把宾语当做新的主语,这时候原来的谓语动词就违反了主谓一致的原则。那么这个时候,我们就可以考虑被动语态了。事实上,这正是被动语态的一种用法。

  使用被动语态的情景有很多,大概可以分为以下几类:

  A) 不知道动作的执行者或者没有必要知道

  My bike was stolen last night.

  B) 借助被动的动作来突出承受者

  I was given ten minutes to decide whether I should accept the offer.

  C) 句子组织需要

  The well-known person got on the bus and was immediately recognized by people.

  可以接双宾语的句子改为被动语态后注意需要介词点明直接宾语和间接宾语的关系。

  有些句子hear, make, feel, see做动词省略to的动词不定式改成被动语态时,to需要还原。

  I heard him sing in the next room.改为

  He was heard to sing in the next room.

  有些动词不能改成被动语态

  A) 静态动词,如have, cost, last, own, suit, hold, fit, belong to, agree with

  B) 及物动词的主动形式表示被动含义,如cut, wash, sell, write, wear

  C) 主动形式表示被动含义,如be worth doing, need doing

  SAT对于动词或者动词词组是否能改成被动语态不会涉及,也就是说不会出现在被动语态和主动语态中选择一个最优选项的问题。如果出现这种现象,考生应该返回去读题,寻找其他的答题线索。

  知识点10

  情态动词的区别和辨析在高中语法时是一个重要的语法知识点,但是在SAT中却几乎不涉及。我们只需要掌握的关于情态动词的知识点主要是以下几点:

  Can可以做“有可能会”

  情态动词+“have done”表示应该/可能/也许已经发生某个动作,无论主语是单数还是复数,这里必须要用have done因为情态动词后面只能加上动词原形。

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