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2017.9.21雅思考试机经回忆

2017/9/25 11:45:38来源:新航道作者:新航道

摘要:今天上海新航道雅思培训机构小编为大家带来的是刚过去的2017.9.21的雅思考试回忆,还有答案和解析哦! 

  今天上海新航道雅思培训机构小编为大家带来的是刚过去的2017.9.21的雅思考试回忆,还有答案和解析哦! 


 Listening

Section 1

Version

Topic

V30083

电话买旧家具

Questions 1-10

NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER

1. Size of bed: Queen

2. Type of wardrobe: double door

3. There is a mirror in the wardrobe

4. Size of wardrobe: 1.8 meters

5. The only appliance left is the fridge, which has been used for 2 years.

6. Address for delivery: River View

7. West Avenue

8. The way through Main Road to get there.

9. There is a bus stop opposite the house.

10. Day to pay a visit: Tuesday

Section 2

Version

Topic

V08102

一个就职培训

Questions 11-13 Sentence completion

Aim of this course:

11. gives information to seek opportunities

12. to increase applicant’s confidence and experiences

13. to give contacts names and phone calls

 

Questions 14-20  

Course

Object

Time

Things to Bring

 

14. young employees

1 hour

Nothing

15. Written documents

Everyone

2 hours

Your CV

Further education

16. interested in promotion

17. 45 minutes

Nothing

18. Networking

Everyone

1 hour or more

19. your application form

20. Self-employment

Experienced employees

2 hours

Nothing

Section 3

Version

Topic

V14108

学习反馈

Questions 21-27 Matching

A. catering to different levels

B. resources inadequate

C. created disagreement

D. plenty of choices

E. omitted some information

F. not necessary

G. entirely positive experience

H. not convenient for everyone

21. pre-course information   E

22. lecture timetabling   H

23. library resources   D

24. tutorial system   G

25. teaching   A

26. IT support   F

27. discussion grouping   C

 

Questions 28-30

28. What subject does Diana want to specialize in?

A. Marketing

B. Accounting

C. Product managing

 

29. What does the tutor want Diana to do after she hand4ed in the proposal?

A. A break

B. Go to enrol on a new course

C. Get work experience

 

30. What help can the tutor offer to Diana?

A. Write a reference letter

B. Introduce some companies

C. Some contact names

Section 4

Version

Topic

V08125

利用太阳能进行水净化

Questions 31-40

31. sea water has high level in salts so that we cannot drink such water

32. water that is purified through solar can be used in hospitals

33. although SW40 can purify sea water, it is too slow

34. the promotion of such equipment got financial support from an organization called Health International’

35. the maximum water can be flick in a day: 9 liters

36. water that is purified by the machine is enough for a family

  Reading

Passage 1

Topic

新手,熟练工和专家

Content Review

From novice to expert

Expertise is commitment coupled with creativity. Specifically, it is the commitment of time, energy, and resources to a relatively narrow field of study and the creative energy necessary to generate new knowledge in that field. It takes a considerable amount of time and regular exposure to a large number of cases to become an expert.

 

A

An individual enters a field of study as a novice. The novice needs to learn the guiding principles and rules of a given task in order to perform that task. Concurrently, the novice needs to be exposed to specific cases, or instances, that test the boundaries of such heuristics. Generally, a novice will find a mentor to guide her through the process. A fairly simple example would be someone learning to play chess. The novice chess player seeks a mentor to teach her the object of the game, the number of spaces, the names of the pieces, the function of each piece, how each piece is moved, and the necessary conditions for winning or losing the game.

 

B

In time, and with much practice, the novice begins to recognize patterns of behavior within cases and. thus, becomes a journeyman. With more practice and exposure to increasingly complex cases, the journeyman finds patterns not only within cases but also between cases. More importantly, the journeyman learns that these patterns often repeat themselves over time. The journeyman still maintains regular contact with a mentor to solve specific problems and learn more complex strategies. Returning to the example of the chess player, the individual begins to learn patterns of opening moves, offensive and defensive game-playing strategies, and patterns of victory and defeat.

 

C

When a journeyman starts to make and test hypotheses about future behavior based on past experiences, she begins the next transition. Once she creatively generates knowledge, rather than simply matching superficial patterns, she becomes an expert. At this point, she is confident in her knowledge and no longer needs a mentor as a guide—she becomes responsible for her own knowledge. In the chess example, once a journeyman begins competing against experts, makes predictions based on patterns, and tests those predictions against actual behavior, she is generating new knowledge and a deeper understanding of the game. She is creating her own cases rather than relying on the cases of others.

 

D

The chess example is a rather short description of an apprenticeship model. Apprenticeship may seem like a restrictive 18th century mode of education, but it is still a standard method of training for many complex tasks. Academic doctoral programs are based on an apprenticeship model, as are fields like law, music, engineering, and medicine. Graduate students enter fields of study, find mentors, and begin the long process of becoming independent experts and generating new knowledge in their respective domains.

 

E

Psychologists and cognitive scientists agree that the time it takes to become an expert depends on the complexity of the task and the number of cases, or patterns, to which an individual is exposed. The more complex the task, the longer it takes to build expertise, or, more accurately, the longer it takes to experience and store a large number of cases or patterns.

 

F

The Power of Expertise

An expert perceives meaningful patterns in her domain better than non-experts. Where a novice perceives random or disconnected data points, an expert connects regular patterns within and between cases. This ability to identify patterns is not an innate perceptual skill; rather it reflects the organization of knowledge after exposure to and experience with thousands of cases. Experts have a deeper understanding of their domains than novices do, and utilize higher-order principles to solve problems. A novice, for example, might group objects together by color or size, whereas an expert would group the same objects according to their function or utility. Experts comprehend the meaning of data and weigh variables with different criteria within their domains better than novices. Experts recognize variables that have the largest influence on a particular problem and focus their attention on those variables.

 

G

Experts have better domain-specific short-term and long-term memory than novices do. Moreover, experts perform tasks in their domains faster than novices and commit fewer errors while problem solving. Interestingly, experts go about solving problems differently than novices. Experts spend more time thinking about a problem to fully understand it at the beginning of a task than do novices, who immediately seek to find a solution. Experts use their knowledge of previous cases as context for creating mental models to solve given problems.

 

H

Better at self-monitoring than novices, experts are more aware of instances where they have committed errors or failed to understand a problem. Experts check their solutions more often than novices and recognize when they are missing information necessary for solving a problem. Experts are aware of the limits of their domain knowledge and apply their domain's heuristics to solve problems that fall outside of their experience base.

 

I

The Paradox of Expertise

The strengths of expertise can also be weaknesses. Although one would expect experts to be good forecasters, they are not particularly good at making predictions about the future. Since the 1930s, researchers have been testing the ability of experts to make forecasts. The performance of experts has been tested against actuarial tables to determine if they are better at making predictions than simple statistical models. Seventy years later, with more than two hundred experiments in different domains, it is clear that the answer is no. If supplied with an equal amount of data about a particular case, an actuarial table is as good, or better, than an expert at making calls about the future. Even if an expert is given more specific case information than is available to the statistical model, the expert does not tend to outperform the actuarial table.

 

J

Theorists and researchers differ when trying to explain why experts are less accurate forecasters than statistical models. Some have argued that experts, like all humans, are inconsistent when using mental models to make predictions. A number of researchers point to human bias to explain unreliable expert predictions. During the last 30 years, researchers have categorized, experimented, and theorized about the cognitive aspects of forecasting. Despite such efforts, the literature shows little consensus regarding the causes or manifestations of human bias.

 

Questions & Answers

Questions 1-5

From a novice to an expert

Novice:

1. need principles and rules to perform a task A

2. guided by a mentor through learning A

Journeyman start to identify 3. patterns for cases within or between cases which make the study more 4. complex. B

Expert: create and 5. test new knowledge C

 

Questions 6-10

6. Novices and experts use the same system of knowledge to comprehend and classify objects. False

(F段,文中说novice用大小来给东西分类,而expert用功能分类)

7. The focus of novices' training is necessarily on long term memory. NG

(并没有提及novice memory)

8. When working out the problems, novices want to slow them straight away. True

(G段说experts perform tasks in their domains faster than novices)

9. Novice go to find answers straight at the beginning of the task. True

(Gat the beginning of a tasknovices, who immediately seek to find a solution.)

10. Expert tend to review more than novices on cases when flaws or limit on understanding took place. True 

(H段说at the beginning of a task than do novices, who immediately seek to find a solution.)

 

Questions 11-13

Researchers perform a lot of 11. experiments of experts in different fields. And some find it is 12. human bias leading to the inaccuracy of experts. And there is not a great deal of 13. consensus of the reason and manifestation of that.

(11题在I, 12/13G)

Passage 2

Topic

化石数据库

Content Review

Fossil files “The Paleobiology Database”

P1 Are we now living through the sixth extinction as our own activities destroy ecosystems and wipe out diversity? That’s the doomsday scenario painted by many ecologists, and they may well be right. The trouble is we don’t know for sure because we don’t have a clear picture of how life changes between extinction events or what has happened in previous episodes. We don’t even know how many species are alive today, let alone the rate at which they are becoming extinct. A new project aims to fill some of the gaps. The Paleobiology Database aspires to be an online repository of information about every fossil ever dug up. It is a huge undertaking that has been described as biodiversity’s equivalent of the Human Genome Project. Its organizers hoped that by recording the history of biodiversity they will gain an insight into how environmental changes have shaped life on Earth in the past and how they might do so in the future. The database may even indicate whether life can rebound no matter what we throw at it, or whether a human induced extinction could be without parallel, changing the rules that have applied throughout the rest of the planet’s history.

 

P2 But already the project is attracting harsh criticism. Some experts believe it to be seriously flawed. They point out that a database is only as good as the data fed into it, and that even if all the current fossil finds were cataloged, they would provide an incomplete inventory of life because we are far from discovering every fossilized species. They say that researchers should get up from their computers and get back into the dirt to dig up new fossils. Others are more sceptical still, arguing that we can never get the full picture because the fossil record is riddled with holes and biases.

 

P3 Fans of the Paleobiology Database acknowledge that the fossil record will always be incomplete. But they see value in looking for global patterns that show relative changes in biodiversity. “The fossil record is the best tool we have for understanding how diversity and extinction work in normal times,” says John Alroy from the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis in Santa Barbara. “Having a background extinction estimate gives us a benchmark for understanding the mass extinction that’s currently under way. It allows us to say just how bad it is in relative terms.”

 

P4 To this end, the Paleobiology Database aims to be the most thorough attempt yet to come up with good global diversity curves. Every day between 10 and 15 scientists around the world add information about fossil finds to the database. Since it got up and running in 1998, scientists have entered almost 340,000 specimens, ranging from plants to whales to insects to dinosaurs to sea urchins. Overall totals are updated hourly at www.paleodb.org. Anyone can download data from the public part of the site and play with the numbers to their heart’s content. Already, the database has thrown up some surprising results. Looking at the big picture, Alroy and his colleagues believe they have found evidence that biodiversity reached a plateau long ago, contrary to the received wisdom that species numbers have increased continuously between extinction events. “The traditional view is that diversity has gone up and up and up,” he says. “Our research is showing that diversity limits were approached many tens of millions of years before the dinosaurs evolved, much less suffered extinction.” This suggests that only a certain number of species can live on Earth at a time, filling a prescribed number of niches like spaces in a multi-storey car park. Once it’s full, no more new species can squeeze in, until extinctions free up new spaces or something rare and catastrophic adds a new floor to the car park.

 

P5 Alroy has also used the database to reassess the accuracy of species names. His findings suggest that irregularities in classification inflate the overall number of species in the fossil record by between 32 and 44 per cent. Single species often end up with several names, he says, due to misidentification or poor communication between taxonomists in different countries. Repetition like this can distort diversity curves. “If you have really bad taxonomy in one short interval, it will look like a diversity spike~a big diversification followed by a big extinction—when all that has happened is a change in the quality of names,” says Alroy. For example, his statistical analysis indicates that of the 4861 North American fossil mammal species catalogued in the database, between 24 and 31 per cent will eventually prove to be duplicates.

 

P6 Of course, the fossil record is undeniably patchy. Some laces and times have left behind more fossil-filled rocks than others. Some have been sampled more thoroughly. And certain kinds of creatures— those with hard parts that lived in oceans, for example— are more likely to leave a record behind, while others, like jellyfish, will always remain a mystery. Alroy has also tried to account for this. He estimates, for example, that only 41 per cent of North American mammals that have ever lived are known from fossils, and he suspects that similar proportion of fossils are missing from other groups, such as fungi and insects .

 

P7 Not everyone is impressed with such mathematical wizardry. Jonathan Adrain from the University of Iowa in Iowa City points out that statistical wrangling has been known to create mass extinctions where none occurred. It is easy to misinterpret data. For example, changes in sea level or inconsistent sampling methods can mimic major changes in biodiversity. Indeed, a recent and thorough examination of the literature on marine bivalve fossils has convinced David Jablonsky from the University of Chicago and his colleagues that their diversity has increased steadily over the past 5 million years.

 

P8 Adrain believes that fancy analytical techniques are no substitute for hard evidence, but he has also seen how inadequate historical collections can be. When he started his ongoing study of North American fossils from the Early Ordovician, about 500 million years ago, the literature described one genus and four species of trilobites, lust by going back to the fossil beds and sampling more thoroughly, Adrain found 11 genera and 39 species. “Looking inward has maybe taken us as far as it’s going to take us,” he says. “There’s an awful lot more out there than is in the historical record.” The only way to really get at the history of biodiversity, say Adrain and an increasingly vocal group of scientists, is to get back out in the field and collect new data.

 

P9 With an inventory of all living species, ecologists could start to put the current biodiversity crisis in historical perspective. Although creating such a list would be a task to rival even the Palaeobiology Database, it is exactly what the San Francisco-based ALL Species Foundation hopes to achieve in the next 25 years. The effort is essential, says Harvard biologist Edward O. Wilson, who is alarmed by current rates of extinction. “There is a crisis. We’ve begun to measure it, and it’s very high,” Wilson says. “We need this kind of information in much more detail to protect all of biodiversity, not just the ones we know well.” Let the counting continue.

 

Questions & Answers

Questions 14-20

14. vi

15. i

16. vii

17. ii

18. iv

19. viii

20. iii

 

Questions 21-22

AJ这个教授认为这个database不太靠谱的原因

21. B 有很多重复性的词条

22. D 地球上还有大量的生物未被发现和鉴定

 

Questions 23-26

23. E 第一个J教授,他认为应该收集更多的化石。

24. A AJ认为我们应该清楚一些重复词条。

25. C MS对这个数据库的未来非常看好。

26. B 貌似教RL对数据库的未来表示不太看好。

Passage 3

Topic

巧克力的历史

Content Review

The History of Chocolate

P1 The history of food and drinks have only been accepted in recent decades, at least in Western countries. Earlier generations of scholars tried to avoid the study, they believed it was valueless and disrespected. As a consequence, culinary history left over to be the favor subject of amateurs. And the origin of chocolate lies in difficult and cloudy in Central America. As we always plays a game in a circle that one whisper to the next the one, till the last one, the story was changed at all.  

 

P2 When we think of chocolate, we believe it is solid. Yet, nine-tenths in the history chocolate is for drinking, not to eat. A few lines and pages written about the chocolate as a beverage before the later fifteenth century. There are two chapters about this part in this book.

 

P3. Chapter one is about Cacao. Cacao has been cultivated by many cultures for at least three millennia in Mesoamerica. The seeds and beans were made in to beverages.

 

P4. Chapter two is the origin of chocolate. The earliest evidence of use traces to the Mokaya (Mexico), with evidence of chocolate beverages dating back to 1900 BCE. In fact, the majority of Mesoamerican people made chocolate beverages, including the Aztecs in South Mexico. Chapter three is about the importance of Cacao in Native continents. Cacao is used in early Aztec cultures as both valued and currency. The ancient Mayan and Aztec cultures understood its medical properties. Today, science confirms chocolate has many favorable qualities that support health and psychological well-being. This magical bean offers great benefits when the cacao is high-quality, raw and organic.

 

P5. Chapter four is about the evolution of the language of the word ‘chocolate’ from Spain in about 1600. After the Spanish invaded the Aztec, chocolate was imported to Europe. Then it quickly became a court favorite. Chapter five is about the popularity of chocolate as a beverage among the court and religious elites in Western countries in ancient times. The chocolate was brought from Mexico to France, England and other countries.

 

P6. Chapter six is about the previous ancient documents about the chocolate. Chapter seven is about the influence of post-evolution in France to the chocolate. The political change had a great influence on the consumption of chocolate. There was a sharp decrease in chocolate, which led to the replacement of coffee and tea.

 

P7. Chocolate was not only cherished by Spanish Catholic Church and court elites, but the ordinary wanted to drink and taste.

 

P8. Chapter eight is about the modern history of chocolate. Europeans and Americans use machine to process chocolate in solid. It became possible to grind a large amount of cacao and mass-produce chocolate inexpensively and quickly. In some countries, such as England, anyone with money could buy chocolate. Daniel Peter of Vevey, Switzerland, introduced the formula for the world’s first milk chocolate. Chocolate was so popular among people that there was a skyrocket demand for chocolate. Unfortunately, the quality of chocolate dropped.

 

Questions & Answers

Questions 27-30 T/F/NG

27. Today’s academics consider the history of food unsuitable for study. F  (P1)

28. The research of history of chocolate has long been one of the most popular subjects for amateurs. NG

29. Much previous researcher’s into chocolate were unreliable. T  (P1)

30. The writer give more information about before the later fifteenth century than the most publications about chocolate do.(P2)

 

Questions 31-35 Matching

31. How a fall in the level of chocolate consumption linked to political change.  G

32. The evolution of the language of chocolate.  D

33. How the solid chocolate with everyone’s financial reach.  H

34. The importance of chocolate in the native continent.  C

35. Newly previously ancient documents about chocolate.  F

 

A. Chapter one

B. Chapter two

C. Chapter three

D. Chapter four

E. Chapter five

F. Chapter six

G. Chapter seven

H. Chapter eight

Questions 36-40 Fill in the blank---no more than two words.

36. During the eighteenth century, the consumption of chocolate in countries, such as England where chocolate are not confined by court and religious elites.  (P6)

37. The post-evolution in France, the most consumption of chocolate had been replaced by coffee and tea.  (P6)

38. In the nineteenth century, the addition of milk was in the process of solid chocolate.  (P8)

39. The large scale example of chocolate is in the work of Disney-like park.  (P8)

40. In the twentieth century, the mass-production made a sharp drop in chocolate quality.  (P8)

  Writing

Task 1

Type of questions

表格

题目

The table below shows the percentage of men and women working in different employment sectors in 1990, 2000 and 2010.

 

Men%

Woman%

 

1990

2000

2010

1990

2000

2010

Retail/ shop

13

13

13

20

19

18

Health

7

7

9

9

10

11

Manufacturing

30

15

10

17

5

3

Tourism

7

9

10

23

23

25

Task 2

Topic

社会问题

Type of questions

讨论类

题目

Some people think that the government should do more to make their citizens have a healthy diet. Others, however, believe that individuals should be responsible for their own diet and health.

Discuss both views and give your own opinions.

 Speaking

  Part 1

People & Animal

Friends

Family

Teachers

Pop star

Teenagers

Events

Indoor Games

Housework

Birthdays

Objects/Things

Jewellery

Vegetables and fruits

Boat

Places

Hometown

Home/Accommodation

High school

Media

Newspaper and magazine

Abstract

Work or study

Transportation

Politeness

Sunshine

Time management

Rainy days

  Part 2&3

People & Animal

Describe an interesting neighbor.有趣的邻居

Describe a couple you know who have a happy marriage.幸福的婚姻

Describe someone who is a good parent.好家长

Describe a person you know a lot.熟悉的人

Events

Describe a leisure activity near the ocean.海边活动

Describe a time you need to arrive early.早到的经历

Describe an interesting conversation you had with a stranger.有意思的谈话

Describe an English lesson you had.英语课

Describe a time you saw lots of people were smiling.好笑的场合

Describe an occasion where somebody gave you positive suggestions.积极建议

Objects/Things

Describe a book you want to read again.重读的书

Describe a time that you had a free gift.免费礼物

Describe your favourite piece of clothing.喜欢的衣服

Describe an important invention which has changed our life.重要的发明

Describe a kind of vegetable or plant.植物

Describe something you bought according to an advertisement you saw.因广告而购物

Describe an exciting book you have read.令人兴奋的书

Describe something you bought recently that you were happy with.开心购物

Describe a piece of furniture.家具

Places

Describe a quiet place.安静的地方.

Describe a place you know where people go to listen to music.听音乐的地方

Media

Describe a website you like to visit.喜欢访问的网站

Abstract

Describe a rule at your school that you agree or disagree.校规

Describe a subject of science that you learned in secondary/high school.科学课

Describe an achievement that you are proud of.骄傲的成就

重点话题Sample Answer

Describe a place you know where people go to listen to music.

You should say:

Where it is

What kind of music is performed there

What type of people go there

And explain your impressions of this place.

 

Located in the metropolitan area in the city, London’s West End is a Mecca for people who are really fond of music, notably operas. It boasts more than 40 theaters where tremendous classical operas are on, which will absolutely make people overwhelmed with choices. In this case, the West End lives up to its reputation.

 

The West End not only provides people with fancy theaters but also offers lots of leisure facilities, such as bistros and pubs, to let people have a nice sit-down. That’s why people from all over the world are in a rush to visit the West End in spite of the long journey. If you do love music, the West End is the place that you should not miss.

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