Traditional Farming System in Africa
By tradition land in Luapula is not owned by individuals,but as in many other parts of Africa is allocated by the headman or head woman of a village to people of either sex,according to need.Since land is generally prepared by hand,one Lulupwa cannot take on a very large area; in this sense land has not been a limiting resource over large parts of the province. The situation has already changed near the main townships, and there has long been a scarcity of land for cultivation in the Valley. In these areas registered ownership patterns are becoming prevalent.
Most of the traditional cropping in Luapula,as in the Bemba area to the east,is based on cite,a system whereby crops are grown on the ashes of tree branches.As a rule,entire trees are not felled,but are pollarded so that they can regenerate. Branches are cut over an area of varying size early in the dry season,and stacked to dry over a rough circle about a fifth to a tenth of the pollarded area.The wood is fired before the rains and in the first year planted with the African cereal finger millet (Eleusinecoracana).
During the second season, and possibly for a few seasons more the
area is planted to variously mixed combinations of annuals such as
maize,pumpkins(Telfiriaoccidentalis) and other cucurbits,sweet potatoes,groundnuts,Phaseolus beans and various leafy vegetables,grown with a certain amount of rotation.The diverse-sequence ends with vegetable cassava,which is often planted into the developing last-but-one crop as a relay.
Richards (1969) observed that the practice of cite entails a definite
division of labor between men and women.A man stakes out a plot
in an unobtrusive manner,since it is considered provocative towards one’s neighbors to mark boundaries in an explicit way.The dangerous work of felling branches is the men’s province,and involves much pride. Branches are stacked by the women,and fired by the men.Formerly women and men cooperated in the planting work,but the harvesting was always done by the women.At the beginning of the cycle little weeding is necessary, since the firing of the branches effectively destroys weeds.As the cycle progresses weeds increase and nutrients eventually become depleted to a point where further effort with annual crops is judged to be not worthwhile:at this point the cassava is planted, since it can produce a crop on nearly exhausted soil.Thereafter the plot is abandoned,and a new area pollarded for the next cite cycle.
When forest is not available - this is increasingly the case nowadays
- various ridging systems (ibala) are built on small areas, to be
planted with combinations of maize, beans, groundnuts and sweet
potatoes, usually relayed with cassava. These plots are usually
tended by women, and provide subsistence.Where their roots have
year-round access to water tables mango, guava and oil-palm trees
often grow around houses, forming a traditional agroforestry
system. In season some of the fruit is sold by the roadside or in local
The margins of dambos are sometimes planted to local varieties of
rice during the rainy season, and areas adjacent to vegetables
irrigated with water from the dambo during the dry season. The
extent of cultivation is very limited, no doubt because the growing of
crops under dambo conditions calls for a great deal of skill. Near
towns some of the vegetable produce is sold in local markets.
Fishing has long provided a much needed protein supplement to the
diet of Luapulans, as well as being the one substantial source of
cash. Much fish is dried for sale to areas away from the main
waterways. The Mweru and Bangweulu Lake Basins are the main
areas of year-round fishing, but the Luapula River isalso exploited
during the latter part of the dry season. Several previously abundant
and desirable species, such as the Luapula salmon or mpumbu
(Labeoaltivelis) and pale (Sarotherodonmachochir) have all but
disappeared fro make Mweru, apparently due to mismanagement.
Fishing has always been a far more remunerative activity in Luapula
that crophusbandry. A fisherman may earn more in a week than a
bean or maize grower in a whole season. I sometimes heard claims
that the relatively high earnings to be obtained from fishing induced
an ‘easy come, easy go’ outlook among Luapulan men. On the
other hand, someone who secures good but erratic earnings may
feel that their investment in an economically productive activity is
not worthwhile because Luapulans fail to cooperate well in such
activities. Besides, a fisherman with spare cash will find little in the
way of working equipment to spend his money on. Better spend
one’s money in the bars and have a good time!
Only small numbers of cattle or oxen are kept in the province owing
to the prevalence of the tsetse fly. For the few herds, the dambos
provide subsistence grazing during the dry season. The absence of
animal draft power greatly limits peoples’ ability to plough and
cultivate land: a married couple can rarely manage to prepare by
hand-hoeing. Most people keep freely roaming chickens and goats.
These act as a reserve for bartering, but may also be occasionally
slaughtered for ceremonies or for entertaining important visitors.
These animals are not a regular part of most peoples’ diet.
Cite has been an ingenious system for providing people with
seasonal production of high quality cereals and vegetables in
regions of acid, heavily leached soils. Nutritionally, the most serious
deficiency was that of protein. This could at times be alleviated
when fish was available, provided that cultivators lived near the
Valley and could find the means of bartering for dried fish. The
cite/fishing system was well adapted to the ecology of the miombo
regions and sustainable for long periods, but only as long as human
population densities stayed at low levels. Although population
densities are still much lower than in several countries of
South-East Asia, neither the fisheries nor the forests and woodlands
of Luapula are capable, with unmodified traditional practices, of
supporting the people in a sustainable manner.
Overall,people must learn to intensify and diversify their productive
systems while yet ensuring that these systems will remain
productive in the future, when even more people will need food.
Increasing overall production of food, though avast challenge in
itself, will not be enough, however. At the same time storage and
distribution systems must allow everyone access to at least a
moderate share of the total.
1. In Luapula land allocation is in accordance with need
2. The citemene system provides the land with (the) ashes where crops are planted.
3. During the second season,the last planted crop is(vegetable) cassava
4. Under suitable conditions, fruit trees are planted near houses
5. be used in some unusual occasions, such as celebrations. ---C
6. cannot thrive for being affected by the pests. ---B
7. be the largest part of creating profit. ---A
8. be sold beyond the local area.--- A
9. People rarely use animals to cultivate land. ---TRUE
10. When it is a busy time, children usually took part in the labor
force.--- NOT GIVEN
11. The local residents eat goats on a regular time. --- FALSE
12. Though cite has been a sophisticated system, it could not provide enoughprotein. --- TRUE
Choosethe correct letter, A, B, C or D.
Write the correct letter in the box 13 on your answer sheet.
What is the writer ’ s opinion about the traditional ways of
B They are not capable of providing adequate support to the
A facial expression is one or more motions or positions of the muscles in the skin. These movements convey the emotional state of the individual to observers. Facial expressions are a form of nonverbal communication. They are a primary means of conveying social information among aliens, but also occur in most other mammals ( 哺 乳 动 物 ) and some other animal species. Facial expressions and their significance in the perceiver can, to some extent, vary between cultures with evidence from descriptions in the works of Charles Darwin.
Humans can adopt a facial expression to read as a voluntary action.
However,cause expressions are closely tied to emotion, they are more often involuntary ( 不知不觉的).It can be nearly impossible to avoid expressions for certain emotions,even when it would be strongly desirable to do so;a person who is trying to avoid insulting an individual he or she finds highly unattractive might,nevertheless,show a brief expression of disgust before being able to reassume a neutral expression. Microexpressions( 微表情)are one example of this phenomenon.The close link between emotion and expression can also work in the other direction; it has been observed that voluntarily assuming an expression can actually
cause the associated emotion.
Some expressions can be accurately interpreted even between members of different species- anger and extreme contentment(满足，满意) being the primary examples.Others,however,are difficult to interpret even in familiar individuals.For instance,disgust and fear can be tough to tell apart. Because faces have only a limited range of movement,expressions rely upon fairly minuscule differences in the proportion and relative position of facial features,and reading them requires considerable sensitivity to same.Some faces are often falsely read as expressing some emotion,even when they are neutral,because their proportions naturally resemble those another face would temporarily assume.
Also, a person 1s eyes reveal much about how they are feeling, or
what they are thinking. Blink rate( 眨眼率)can reveal how nervous
or at ease a person may be. Research by Boston College professor
Joe Tecce suggests that stress levels are revealed by blink rates.
He- supports his data with statistics on the relation between the
blink rates of presidential candidates and their success in their
races. Tecce claims that the faster blinker in the presidential
debates has lost every election since 1980. Though Tecce 1 s data
is interesting,it is important to recognize that non-verbal
communication is multi-channeled,and focusing on only one aspect
is reckless.Nervousness can also be measured by examining each
candidates’perspiration, eye contact and stiffness.
As Charles Darwin noted in his book The Expression of the
Emotions in Man and Animals:the young and the old of widely
different races, both with man and animals, express the same state
of mind by the same movements. Still, up to the mid— 20th century
most anthropologists ( 人类学家）believed that facial expressions
were entirely learned and could therefore differ among cultures.
Studies conducted in the 1960s by Paul Ekman eventually
supported Darwin’s belief to a large degree.
Ekman’s work on facial expressions had its starting point in the work
of psychologist Silvan Tomkins.Ekman showed that contrary to the
belief of some anthropologists including Margaret Mead,facial
expressions of emotion are not culturally determined,but universal
across human cultures.The South Fore people of New Guinea were
chosen as subjects for one such survey. The study consisted of 189
adults and 130 children from among a very isolated population,as
well as twenty three members of the culture who lived a less
isolated lifestyle as a control group.Participants were told a story
that described one particular emotion;they were then shown three
pictures (two for children) of facial expressions and asked to match
the picture which expressed the story’s emotion.
While the isolated South Fore people could identify emotions with
the same accuracy as the non-isolated control group, problems
associated with the study include the fact that both fear and surprise
were constantly misidentified. The study concluded that certain
facial expressions correspond to particular emotions and can not be
covered, regardless of cultural background, and regardless of
whether or not the culture has been isolated or exposed to the
Expressions Ekman found to be universal included those indicating
anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness, and surprise (note that none of
these emotions has a definitive social component, such as shame,
pride, or schadenfreude). Findings on contempt (which is social) are
less clear, though there is at least some preliminary evidence that
this emotion and its expression are universally recognized. This
may suggest that the facial expressions are largely related to the
mind and each parts on the face can express specific emotion.
The result of Ekman’s study demonstrates that fear and surprise are
persistently 28 misidentified and made a conclusion that some facial
expressions have something to do with certain 29 emotions which is
impossible covered, despite of 29 emotions and whether the culture
has been 30 cultural background or 31 exposed to the mainstream.
33 the difficulty identifying the actual meaning of facial expressions
34 the importance of culture on facial expressions
35 collected data for the research on the relation between blink and
the success in elections
36 impossible to differentiate some closely related expressions
37 an indicator to reflect one’s extent of nervousness
38 the relation between emotion and facial expressions
Which Two of the following statements are true according to Ekman’s theory?
A No evidence shows animals have their own facial expressions.
B Mind controls man’s facial expressions.
C Facial expressions are concerning different cultures.
D Different spots on face convey certain state of mind.
E The definite relationship between facial expressions and state of