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2017年托福写作考情分析及2018年备考建议

2018/1/2 15:17:06来源:新航道作者:新航道

摘要:2017年托福写作考情分析及2018年托福写作备考情况

  2017年考情分析

  1概述

  2017年大陆地区一共进行了48场托福考试,其中1月14日、2月18日、7月1日出现了AB卷,同样的情况出现在2016年6月18日、2015年3月17日、2014年9月27日和11月8日,以及2013年的8月25日、10月12日、10月20日这3场考试,再往前一年,2012年7月28日、8月25日也出现了两套考题。而与往年不同的是,今年3月4日出现ABC卷,3月11日更是出现ABCD卷。有趣的是,往年A、B两卷的题目当然会有所区别,独立写作题目完全不一样,但是今年的不同试卷独立题目并无区别,只不过2月18日考试A卷的题目长到让考生心塞。另外的干扰因素是加场考试,ETS每年在原有托福考试日期基础之上,为了满足中国大陆地区托福考试的需求,单独在中国大陆增加的几场托福考试。本年度的两次加场都出现在周末的下午,分别为7月15日和8月26日的下午场,15点开考,以及9月23日的傍晚场,16点开考。根据考生回忆,下午场的难度相比上午场并没有更难一些。除了突然加场,多卷出题之外,上半年最后一场6月25日,中国大陆地区考生在进考场前核验身份,启用了人脸识别技术,种种策略无非是官方应对作弊屡屡出现之举。对于很多考生来说,最不幸的当属从2017年3月4日托福考试开始,阅读和听力的“经典加试”一次都没有出现在托福考试中,取而代之的是全新的、无规律的、分辨不出哪个部分是加试的套题。不过,在如此疯狂的调整我们也要看到积极的一面,写作部分迄今还没有出现过加试情况。

  2题目类别和话题整体趋势不变独立写作题型

托福写作

  如图所示,2017年共48场考试,题型较往年并无变化,也即没有新的题型出现。在这48道题目中,同意与否题型25道,占比52%,较去年的32道题目(占比66%)有明显的下降;三选一题型12道,占比25%,比去年的7道题目要多出5道,接近翻倍,这也提醒考生3选1题型的重要性在持续增加;两者比较题型11道,占比23%,比去年的9道题多出2道,比例较接近。需要引起注意的是,虽然同意与否的题型占比稍微超过了一半,但是很多同意与否题目中的观点也包含比较级,本质上也是两者比较的题目。如果考生处理这类题目的时候没有比较,肯定会因此失分。


  独立写作话题比例

托福写作

  2017年托福写作的话题较往年没有新话题出现,但是话题的比重却有变化。往年教育话题是最热门的话题,比如2016年43场考试就有20道该话题题目,占比高达43%,而今年虽然教育话题依然领跑,但48套题目中教育话题仅占19道题目,占比40%;相较而言,生活话题则热度持平,2016年15道生活话题题目,而今年有16道题;其次个人品质话题6道,占比13%,政府与环境4道,占比8%,社会团体话题3道,占比6%。除开话题有一些变化之外,题目给出的信息也有增多的趋势,比如1月14日的独立写作题目长度多达119词,7月15日127词等。也就是说,虽然话题没有变,但是题目的信息更丰富和复杂了,所以审题难度也有所增加。但是万变不离其宗,所以来年的考试千万不能被题目词数吓到。


 各场考试独立写作题目统计信息

  ETS喜欢出旧题早已不是新鲜事,相比去年的25道旧题,今年的旧题数依然坚挺,保持在26道,其中上半年11道,下半年15道。虽然旧题数增加,但是今年考试总场数更多,写作的旧题率下降了约4个百分点。有一些旧题来自于大陆历年的真题,而有一些旧题则来自于北美考区的历年真题。值得一提的是,即使是重复旧题,现在有不少题目会在措辞上与往年有所区别。但这种“变异”题的审题答题思路其实是相通甚至是完全一样的,不要被其外表所欺骗。还有一个有意思的事情是今年5月13日和27日考了一模一样个人品质话题三选一题目,这也是继出现ABC和ABCD卷之后又一大“新闻”。总之,在备考的时候要多刷旧题,多关注考试的动态,这样如果考到旧题或者类似的题目拿到理想分数的胜算会更大。


  2017年托福写作独立真题按话题分类如下表格所示:


日期

教育/学习/学校 19道)

2017/1/14

As a student of university that has a long break between university semesters, the university requires all students to do one of the following for one month during the break:

1. Students must take a course on the subject that has no direct connection to their majors of study ( For example, a student majoring in engineering may take course in fine arts or social science.)

2. Students must volunteer to work in the university’s city or their hometowns to improve someaspects of life of the city or their own town.( For example, students may help local primary school children with their homework.)

Which one do you think is more beneficial for students in their university? Why?

2017/3/25

 

Which ONE of the following factors do you believe is most important in helping students succeed in their studies at college or university? Why?

1. Having access at the university to tutors who can provide individual instruction for students who have difficulty with schoolwork

2. Having the support and encouragement of family and friends while attending university

3. Receiving a high-quality education from excellent teachers while in high school

2017/4/23

 

Some young people are free in the evenings or have days off at school, which way can bring them the most benefit?

1. to accumulate work experience by a part-time job or volunteering in a community

2. learning to play a sport

3. learning to play a musical instrument

2017/5/20

 

At some universities, students are allowed to take part in deciding issues that affect everyone in their daily life on campus such as how many hours that libraries should be open each day or what kinds of food should be served in the cafeteria. But at some other universities, experts are hired to make these decisions while students almost never involved. Which approach do you prefer and why?

2017/6/3

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? One can learn a lot about a person from the type of friends this person has.

2017/7/2

 

The city wants to help teachers of its high school students (ages 14—18) improve their teaching. It is considering two choices:

1. Choose a group of excellent teachers; these teachers will attend a class led by an expert for additional training in how to teach effectively, and they will then come back to their schools and provide that training for the other teachers in the school.

2. Provide additional training in teaching effectively for all high school teachers, using online material that each teacher will study individually. Which one of these plans would you support? Why?

2017/7/15 上午场

 

Students aged 13-18 are taught different subjects by different teachers while younger students are taught by only one teacher all day long. Some people suggest it would benefit young students to be taught by different teachers. Do you agree with this view? Why or why not?

2017/9/9

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: Your friend has the opportunity to choose either one of two types of major field of study, which one would you suggest your friend to choose and why?

1.A major that would allow him to complete and get a degree faster (so that your friend could start working full-time sooner).

2.A major that requires many years of study but would provide him with more employment opportunities and job offers in the future.

2017/9/16

 

Nowadays, children rely too much on the technology, like computers, smartphone, video games for fun and entertainment; playing simple toys or playing outside with friends would be better for the children’s development. Do you agree or disagree?

2017/9/17

 

High school students now cheat more than before in homework assignments, by asking other students for answers. Which of the following do you think is the most effective way to stop this phenomenon?

1. asking parents to monitor (signing homework to prove no cheating involved)

2. increasing penalty or punishment to the students who cheat

3. asking teacher to create homework assignment in which students can hardly cheat

2017/9/23

 

Many universities are trying to help new students adapt to the life on campus. If you were a new college student, which of the following do you prefer to participate in?

- Attending a one-week orientation or introduction program on campus, and it will begin before you have classes.

-  Meeting regularly in your first year with a student in your major who has been in the university for several years.

2017/9/24

 

High school graduates usually have two months’ break before they go to college or university. The high school now requires all the graduates to do one of the following to take full advantage of this break.

1 Students need to attend classes to complete university-level courses that have direct connection to their majors of study.

2 Students need to join a team led by their teacher to visit museums or historical sites and write a paper about it.

Which one do you think is more beneficial for students? Why?

2017/9/30

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Company should pay for the employees to get university degrees

2017/10/15

Most adults believethat modern children (5-10 years old) behave worse than those in the past. Whataction parents should take do you think will have the most positive effect onchildren to help them behave better like respecting and treating others kindly?

1. limit the typesof the TV programs and movies they watch

2. spend more timetalking with children

3. supervise andmonitor children while they are playing with their friends.

2017/10/21

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Students nowadays are more interested in politics than in the past.

2017/10/29

 

Students are eligible for graduation when they have completed satisfactorily all the academic requirements of their degree program as specified by their major department, their college, and the university. In addition to the normal requirements, some universities are now considering requiring all students to take public speaking class in order to improve their public speaking skills. Some deems this extra requirement necessary while others have an opposite view. What is your opinion?

2017/11/4

 

Some people believe students (age 14-18) should make lectures learn by sitting there listening to the teacher while taking notes. Others believe teachers should let students communicate and share their ideas with others more. Which do you think is more effective for students’ study?

2017/12/9

 

What do you think is the most important ability for a high school teacher:

1. the ability to give good advice to students about their future plan;

2. the ability to recognize students who need help and help them;

3. the ability to encourage students to study on their own about the outside world.

2017/12/10

 

Agree or disagree?

Students do not respect their teachers as much as they did in the past

日期

生活/生活方式 16道)

2017/2/26

 

Do you agree or disagree: Parents should help their children with schoolwork or let children work independently?

2017/3/04

 

Many filmmakers make movies based on books. Some people prefer to read the book before they watch the movie, while other people prefer to watch the movie before they read the book. Which one do you prefer?

2017/3/11

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement:

It is better to relax by reading a book or watching a movie than by doing physical exercise.

2017/4/1

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement:

When you have been friends with someone for a long time, it is important to continue your friendship with that person even if he or she does something you do not like.

2017/4/15

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement:

It is better to make friends with intelligent people than with the people who have a good sense of humor.

2017/6/10

 

Some people like to buy and eat their meals at restaurants frequently, while others like to cook most of the meals at home and rarely go to the restaurant. Which do you prefer? Why?

2017/6/25

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: It is better to work for business owned by someone else than to work for the business of one's own family.

2017/7/8

 

Some believe that we should keep a distance from the people we care about, because it is necessary for people to understand the importance of each other, while others think being away from people we care about can damage our relationship with them and we should spend more time with them. Which do you prefer?

2017/7/15 下午场

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: It is better to spend more time watching TV programs from which we can learn knowledge and spend less time watching entertainment TV programs.

2017/10/14

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Remaining happy and optimistic when you fail is more important than achieving success.

2017/10/28

 

Many filmmakers make movies based on books. Some people prefer to read the book before they watch the movie, while other people prefer to watch the movie before they read the book. Which one do you prefer?

2017/11/11

Parents should give weekly spending money to their children.

2017/11/12

Young people aged at 16 to 19 should be required to do some paid part-time jobs.

2017/11/26

 

The food people ate in the past was much healthier than what we eat today.

2017/12/2

 

If you can change one aspect to improve your health, which would you choose? Why?

1. The kind of food

2. The amount of exercise

3.The amount of stress

2017/12/17

 

Your friend is going to reduce the living expenses. Which of the following way would you recommend to your friend and why?

1. Find a roommate that can share the living expenses.

2. Buy the new technology products less frequently.

3. Shop for less expensive food to cook at home.

日期

个人品质 6道)

2017/1/7

Do you agree or disagree: If you are selecting a leader for a student organization, honesty is the most important to consider in deciding whom to vote for.

2017/2/25

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The way a person dresses shows a good indication of his or her personality.

2017/5/6

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement

It is impossible to be completely honest with your friends all the time.

2017/5/13

 

Which one of the following values is the most important to share with a young child (5-10 years old)?

1. being helpful

2. being honest

3. being well organized

2017/5/27

 

Which one of the following values is the most important to share with a young child (5-10 years old)?

1. being helpful

2. being honest

3. being well org

2017/11/25

The more money people have, the more money they should give away to charity.

日期

政府/环境 4道)

2017/7/1

 

What is the most useful action for an individual to take for the protection of natural environment?

1. Leave vehicles at home and walk or ride a bike

2. Reuse and recycle waste

3. Purchase organic food in local markets

2017/8/26 下午场

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: Modern agriculture methods damage the environment, but providing food for the growing population around the world is more important than protecting the environment.

2017/11/18

 

What one of the following is the most important action for the government to take for the protection of natural environment?

1. Fund research on new energy sources such as solar and wind power

2. Preserve natural places such as forests and natural wildlife species

3. Pass and enforce laws to reduce the pollution produced by companies and industries

2017/12/16

 

Do you agree or disagree that the most important thing the government should do to improve health care is to clean the environment.

日期

社会/团体 3道)

2017/2/18

 

Do you agree or disagree: A group will be more helped by a person who is willing to do things that other members want than a person who strongly insist on things in a way that are different from other members want.

2017/8/26 上午场

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: Nowadays it is easier to maintain good health than in the past

2017/8/27

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: Some people think nowadays the media (TV, newspaper, Internet) are less concerned about the accuracy of news than in the past, and the incorrect information may cause problems to the public.


  综合写作话题比例

  2017年综合写作还是以生物学和考古学题目为主,全年48场考试中,其中生物学20次,考古学16次,分别占比42%和33%。去年43场考试中,有17场的总量是考查生物学,占比39%,有14场是考查考古学,占比32%。单从连续两年的情况来看,考古学基本保持持平,但生物学考查次数攀升3场,所以生物学的霸主地位已经确立无疑。在这些生物学的综合写作考题中,主要围绕动物数量下降或灭绝原因,阻止动植物数量继续减少的方法等展开讨论。

托福写作

  各场考试综合写作题目统计信息

  2018年趋势预测

      1.加场考试比例稳定,一日多题是常态

  加场考试从14年的4场,15年的3场,到去年的4场,然后回到今年的3场,说明加场考试比例继续平均每年在3-4场左右。

  但是,当我们以为今年会如去年一样,“一日两题”(就是同天考试的考生在考试结束之后一起核对当天考试内容时,发现他们考到了完全不同的两套题)的比例会稳定在1-2次时,官方打破原有的规律,从3月份开始“一日多题”,然后每场考试各种老题拼盘,新的规律维持了整整一年,相信这将会继续延续到明年。

  正所谓物极必反,一日多题的情况下,官方不得不采用大量已经考过的题目,但同时又会反逼官方研发新题。否则,迟早会有旧题用尽的一天,再加上现在考试真题已经大量流传开来,最终的结果只会是官方的题库被研究透,到时考试的公平性绝对无法保证。


  2. 新题数增加

  正如上面所分析,官方应该在3月开始,重复旧题的同时,已经同时开始加快新题的设计,只要前期测试通过,很多新题肯定会被用到听说读写四个部分中去。就写作而言, 2015年写作的旧题重复率在65%,2016年旧题重复率为58%,到了今年掉为54%。所以估计明年的重复率会继续下降,但是幅度仍然不会太大。为了保证考试的公平性,ETS是不会让两年之内的考题有太大变化。从上面分析可以看出,下半年单场次写作重复旧题的概率仍然比上半年要高,今年要多出4道旧题。就重复年份来看,今年主要以重复2014-2015年的题目为主,2016年或者是更早年份的则相对较少。另外,虽然今年重复率快趋于50%,但是并不是说每考一场新题,接下来就会重复一道旧题,然后又考一道新题。官方喜欢的规律是成群结队的重复,然后成群结队的新题,这一规律相信也是会延续到明年。如果官方真的中规中矩,那么明年极有可能以重复2015-2016年的为主,尤其是2016年。


  3. 审题难度增加

  去年7月10日的考试,独立写作出现有史以来字数最多(97字)的题目。这道题在今年7月2日再次出现。像这样“长”的题目在今年出现6场以上,有的学生直言根本是最后碰到一篇阅读加试。虽然是玩笑话,但是从考试心理上来看,字数过多的题目,即使题目本身不难写,但是会给考生无形中带来很大的冲击,最直接的影响是审题时间过长,考生开始焦急,于是在没有分析清楚思路的情况下贸然动笔,最终导致得分不高。要想拿到写作高分,除了摆正心态之外,还得了解官方出题套路。这些“长”题目,有很大一部分都是“变异”题。比如4月23日的题目就是根据2015年11月18日的老题变异而来。官方只是把主要讨论人群从students换成了young people,而after school activities顺势换成了free time in evenings。官方的目的很单纯,通过更多的限定引导考生专注于所给话题去展开讨论,而不希望考生套用一些假大空的理由。所以大家不要被长题目给吓到了,扎扎实实练习审题,题目分析得多了,自然会看到它们有时候只是多穿了件马甲而已。


  2018年备考建议

      1.熟悉真题,构思快人一步

  新航道官网都会发布每年的托福考情分析,官网机经部分都有每场考试回忆,并且公众微信号会及时更新每次考试的回忆,考生可以多加利用这些渠道去熟悉之前的考题。另外,如果不满足于考试回忆,考生还可购买新航道新托福真经系列丛书来复习,该系列就是对历年真题的真实还原,涉及到听力材料的部分都是请外教专门录音。

  如果不去熟悉真题,那么所有的题目对于你来说都是新题,相比其他人,可能已经输在起跑线了。


  2.广泛阅读,论证强人一倍

  不管是综合还是独立,对上下文的衔接都有相应的考查标准。尤其是独立写作,不论题目类别是一边倒议论型还是两边讨论型,本质上都是要说服考官认同自己的观点。而很多无法突破自己现有分数的学生,成绩单上常有的一句评语是“You may not provide enough specific support and development for your main points.” 即针对自己的观点,没有给出具体的原因或例子,或者说没有通过分析例子去论证自己的观点。在这方面,除了需要通过一定的课程去强化写作的中观点的衔接与发展等技巧之外,还要在平时多广泛阅读一些英文刊物,尤其是社科类的文章去拓展思路。


  3. 词句铺路,功底厚人十分

  写作作为最后一个单项,不论从时间还是体力上,对考生都是一大挑战。很多同学在考试时只求在规定时间内打完所有字,所以往往会出现很多单词使用不恰当,句式结构凌乱等错误,最终导致的结果就是考官看不懂。有心的考生可以在考完之后看一下成绩单上官方针对写作给出的评语,虽然评语有官方套话之嫌,但确实针对该分数段,指出了相关问题,其中最常见的评语就是Your ideas may be difficult to follow…这就要求考生在平时记忆词汇时,不要只满足于背熟了单词的中文意思,在写作层面上,还要通晓该词的词性和固定搭配等。比如表示饥饿的单词有hungry和starve,前者很容易,但是后者被很多同学误以为是名词,其实是动词,而名词形式是starvation。所以在表达很多人饿死了,可以说Hundreds of people starved to death. 还可以表达成Hundreds of people died of starvation. 把词汇的基础打牢之后,还要熟稔英语中的句式结构。据新航道的留学预备课程老师反映,很多要出国的学生,经常在there be句型上出错。比如“很多学生在新航道学习”被表达成There are numerous students study in New Channel. 甚至有些基础好的学生乍一看这个句子都不会发现错误,其实错在study这个词不应该用动词原形,否则整句话出现两个谓语are和study,应该改成studying.

  针对以上两点,建议考生在练习写作的过程中准备一个生词本,每写一篇习作就要把自己不熟的单词或者老师点评指出的句式上的错误积累在本子上,然后查字典确定具体用法。点滴积累,这样才能保证在考试时间有限的情况下,能够恰当地表达出自己所想的思路,让考官看得明明白白。


  4.TPO为王,不变应万变

  TPO本身就是曾经考过的真题,因此这些题与真实考题的思路、出题方式、难易程度的契合度都是任何别的试题所不能比拟的。所以考生在练习过程中通过TPO综合多积累学科词汇,TPO独立熟悉出题思路,多练习,这对考试是大有裨益的。现将独立写作和综合写作话题分类如下,结合2017年的考试规律,重点推荐各位考生认真练习独立写作前2类的题目和综合写作前3类TPO的文章:

托福写作

托福考试

  如果你对写作还有疑问

  如果你想知道自己的写作功底

  就来上海新航道


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