欢迎来到上海新航道学校官网!英语高能高分,就上新航道

上海学校

  • 课程
  • 资讯

4008-125-888

主页>托福TPO>正文

托福TPO72阅读题目+文本及答案解析PDF下载

2022/7/20 17:17:57来源:新航道作者:新航道

摘要:托福考试前很多考生通过TPO练习来提高自己的托福解答能力,今天新航道上海学校托福小编给为大家分享TPO72阅读下载+题目+文本及解析,方便大家做考前练习!

  托福考试前很多考生通过TPO练习来提高自己的托福解答能力,今天新航道上海学校托福小编给为大家分享TPO72阅读下载+题目+文本及解析,方便大家做考前练习!


  Invading Algae

  Biological invasions by exotic species are an escalating threat to biodiversity around the globe. Invasive species can displace native ones and irrevocably alter ecosystems. Most imported species either die or have limited growth in their new home, but a small percentage of the newcomers are opportunists whose growth is dangerously out of control. The story of how Caulerpa taxifolia became famous as one of these species began in 1989, when Dr.

  Alexandre Meinesz, a marine biologist at the University of Nice in France,learned that this exotic alga, which is native to the Caribbean and other tropical seas, was thriving in the Mediterranean waters off the coast of Monaco. Upon investigation, Meinesz discovered that a mutant variety of C.taxifolia was dumped into the Mediterranean with other aquarium refuse by the prestigious Oceanographic Institute of Monaco. Eventually, the C. taxifolia was traced back to a stock developed at the Wilhelma Zoological and Botanical Gardens in Stuttgart, Germany. This stock of C. taxifolia had caught the attention of amateur and professional aquarists for its exceptional beauty and hardiness and had been widely distributed in public and private aquaria in the 1980s.

  Instead of dying in the cold winter waters of the Mediterranean Sea as the tropical variety of C. taxifolia does, the mutant variety can withstand several months at temperatures that range between 10°and 13°C. In addition, the alga grows equally well on a variety of ocean substrates---sand, mud, or rocks--and from near the surface to depths of 50 meters. When temperatures exceed 18°C, the mutant Caulerpa grows at a remarkable rate, capable of elongating by 2 centimeters in a single day and forming a new frond every 2 days. A single square meter of seafloor can be matted with 5,500 leafy fronds.

  All of this growth is asexual. Unlike the tropical form, the mutated form of C. taxifolia produces only male gametes in the Mediterranean and thus replicates only by fragmentation. Just a small piece can regenerate and colonize an area. In fact, it is believed that fishing nets and boat anchors as well as the ripping action of storms have helped the alga spread to new areas.

  With such a rapid rate of growth, the Mediterranean Caulerpa grows quickly over the sea bottom, blanketing all other sea life such as marine angiosperms,native algae, corals, and sea fans. lt cuts off vital essentials such as sunlight for photosynthesis and currents for filter feeding of nutrients. The area becomes a Caulerpa lawn while species diversity is lost. In addition, C,taxifolia is inedible to most marine herbivores because of the presence of toxic compounds, primarily caulerpenyne. With no predator to inhibit its phenomenal growth, the alga had encompassed the Mediterranean coasts of

  Monaco, France, Italy, Spain, and the Croatian coast on the Adriatic Sea covering 30,000 hectares by 2002. Caulerpa infestations have also been found in southern Australia, in estuaries near Sydney and Adelaide.

  Various methods have been tried to eradicate this deadly invader. Divers have been employed to rip the alga out by hand, but care must be taken because even a small fragment is capable of colonizing new areas. Black plastic tarps have been placed over the alga in an attempt to deprive it of life-giving sunlight. Chemicals such as copper, a conventional algicide, and toxic levels of salt have also been applied to Caulerpa fields. There has been limited success but only if the area of invasion is small.

  One hopeful avenue is biological control. In biological control, a disease or predator of the invasive organism is introduced and allowed to destroy it. In the native range of the tropical C. taxiolie, two species of sea slug are immune to its poisons and feed on the alga exclusively. They suck the cytoplasm out of the leaves and incorporate the algal chloroplasts, the part of the plant that contains green photosynthetic pigment, into their skin. The chloroplasts provide camouflage as the snails feed in the Caulerpa fields and, surprisingly,continue to photosynthesize, providing additional nutrition for the slugs. Dr.Meinesz is suggesting the importation of these slugs to the Mediterranean as the only way to eliminate the immense area that Caulerpa now covers. But many experts fear that another exotic importation may lead to more environmental damage.

  1. According to paragraph 1, what event first caused Caulerpa taxifolia to become publicly known as a damaging species?

  A. Marine biologist Alexandre Meinesz identified a variety of C. taxiolia growing in the Mediterranean near Monaco

  B. The Oceanographic Institute of Monaco disposed of a variety of C. taxiolia in the Mediterranean

  C. The Wilhelma Zoological and Botanical Gardens developed a new variety of C. taxifolia

  D. A variety of C. taxifolia became widely distributed in public and private aquaria

  2. According to paragraph 2, which of the following is true of the mutant variety of C. taxifolia?

  A. It grows more rapidly on ocean substrates than near the surface of the sea

  B. It thrives only when temperatures rise above 18°C

  C. It dies when the temperature drops below 13*C

  D. It reproduces through fragmentation

  3. What can be inferred from paragraph 2 about the reproduction of the tropical form of C. taxifolia?

  A. It is accomplished asexually and at a slower pace than that of the mutant form of C taxifolia.

  B. It may be accomplished sexually, from the union of male and female gametes

  C. It occurs due to fragmentation caused by both human activity and storms

  D. It takes place only in winter, when temperatures are colder

  4. Which of the following is true of Caulerpa in the Mediterranean, as described in paragraph 3?

  A. It grows over native species, depriving them of sunlight and nutrients

  B. It poisons native plant species with its toxic compounds

  C. It feeds on native marine herbivores

  D. It grows on the surface of the sea

  5. According to paragraphs 4 and 5, which of the following is NOT a method that has been used in trying to eliminate C. taxifolia from Mediterranean waters?

  A. Having divers pull it out by hand

  B. Putting dark plastic tarps over it

  C. Applying algicides and salt to it

  D. Importing toxin-immune sea slugs to feed on it

  6. The word "exclusively" in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A. entirely

  B. heavily

  C. mostly

  D. frequently

  ? One hopeful avenue is biological control.In biological control,a disease or predator of the invasive organism is introduced and allowed to destroy it.In the native range of the tropical C. taxiolie,two species of sea slug are immune to its poisons and feed on the alga exclusively. They suck the cytoplasm out of the leaves and incorporate the algal chloroplasts,the part of the plant that contains green photosynthetic pigment,into their skin.The chloroplasts provide camouflage as the snails feed in the Caulerpa fields and,surprisingly,continue to photosynthesize,providing additional nutrition for the slugs. Dr. Meinesz is suggesting the importation of these slugs to the Mediterranean as the only way to eliminate the immense area that Caulerpa now covers. But many experts fear that another exotic importation may lead to more environmental damage.

  7. The word "immense" in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A. general

  B. vast

  C. additional

  D. primary

  ? One hopeful avenue is biological control.In biological control,a disease or predator of the invasive organism is introduced and allowed to destroy it.In the native range of the tropical C. taxiolie,two species of sea slug are immune to its poisons and feed on the alga exclusively.They suck the cytoplasm out of the leaves and incorporate the algal chloroplasts,the part of the plant that contains green photosynthetic pigment,into their skin.The chloroplasts provide camouflage as the snails feed in the Caulerpa fields and,surprisingly,continue to photosynthesize,providing additional nutrition for the slugs.Dr.Meinesz is suggesting the importation of these slugs to the Mediterranean as the only way to eliminate the immense area that Caulerpa now covers. But many experts fear that another exotic importation may lead to more environmental damage.

  8. Which of the following statements best describes the organization of the passage?

  A. A description of an ecological problem is followed by a discussion of some possible solutions of the problem

  B. A general statement about an ecological problem is followed by a discussion of several species examples that support the general statement.

  C. An argument about the hazards of certain ecological practices is followed by a discussion of alternatives to those practices

  D. A description of certain harmful ecological practices is followed by a discussion of the origins of the practices.

  9. How can we predict that the presence of the sea slugs will not harm a native Mediterranean species?

  A. 1

  B. 2

  C. 3

  D. 4

  ? One hopeful avenue is biological control. In biological control, a disease or predator of the invasive organism is introduced and allowed to destroy it. In the native range of the tropical C. taxiolie, two species of sea slug are immune to its poisons and feed on the alga exclusively. They suck the cytoplasm out of the leaves and incorporate the algal chloroplasts, the part of the plant that contains green photosynthetic pigment, into their skin.The chloroplasts provide camouflage as the snails feed in the Caulerpa fields and, surprisingly, continue to photosynthesize,providing additional nutrition for the slugs.Dr. Meinesz is suggesting the importation of these slugs to the Mediterranean as the only way to eliminate the immense area that Caulerpa now covers.But many experts fear that another exotic importation may lead to more environmental damage.

  10. Caulerpa taxifolia is an invasive imported species that threatens the biodiversity of the Mediterranean.

  A. Unlike the tropical variety, the mutant variety of C. taxifolia can endure both cold and warm temperatures and can reproduce extremely quickly.

  B. Unlike the tropical variety, the mutant variety of C. taxifolia can endure both cold and warm temperatures and can reproduce extremely quickly.

  C. C. taxiolia threatens sea life in the Mediterranean by cutting off access to life essentials such as sunlight and nutrients.

  D. Some experts believe that fishing nets, boat anchors, and even violent storms are to blame for the rapid spread of C. taxifolia.

  E. Attempts to eliminate C. taxifolia from the Mediterranean have met with only limited success, and an untried method of biological control is risky,some experts say.

  F. Not only are the algal chloroplasts of C. taxifolia harmless to the sea slugs that eat it, but they also provide additional nutrition for the predators.


  (由于篇幅太长,其他几篇及答案和解析我们将以电子档提供给大家下载)索取“托福TPO阅读72原文+题目+答案解析”PDF电子版,扫描二维码即可获取。会有老师联系你发送资料)

  以上就是托福TPO72阅读题目+文本及PDF下载,更多托福资讯,请点击:托福频道 !希望对各位备考托福考试的考生们有所帮助,考出理想分数!

请加COCO老师(微信号:shnc_2018

百人留学备考群,名师答疑,助教监督,分享最新资讯,领取独家资料。扫码免费加入

免费获取资料

免责声明
1、如转载本网原创文章,情表明出处
2、本网转载媒体稿件旨在传播更多有益信息,并不代表同意该观点,本网不承担稿件侵权行为的连带责任;
3、在本网博客/论坛发表言论者,文责自负。

热报课程

  • 托福课程
班级名称 班号 开课时间 人数 学费 报名
托福圣诞巅峰班 TFDFRGX240701 2024/7/1 0:00:00 6-10人 ¥15800.00 在线咨询
托福融合班(封闭-24版)(A段) LRXHX240623 2024/6/23 0:00:00 6-10人 ¥12800.00 在线咨询
托福冲刺20-30人班(C段) TFCCXHD240623 2024/6/23 0:00:00 20-30人 ¥8800.00 在线咨询

制作:每每

旗舰校区:上海徐汇区文定路209号宝地文定商务中心1楼 乘车路线:地铁1/4号线上海体育馆、3/9号线宜山路站、11号线上海游泳馆站

电话:4008-125-888

版权所有:上海胡雅思投资管理有限公司 沪ICP备11042568号-1