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托福阅读25+的秘籍-理清楚逻辑与题型间的联系

2019/4/4 10:08:05来源:新航道作者:新航道

摘要:新航道上海学校每周三的名师说栏目,今日给大家带来的是张迅老师关于托福阅读25+的秘籍:理清楚逻辑与题型间的联系

  每周三的名师说栏目

  特为广大烤鸭、托友而设

  专门请资深雅思、托福专家

  以专题方式为大家讲解各类备考干货

  这次给带来的是托福阅读25+的秘籍:理清楚逻辑与题型间的联系

  张迅

  新航道上海学校托福主讲

  上海师范大学英语师范专业,持英语专业八级证书、中级口译证书、教师资格证。曾赴英国约克大学交流学习。6年教学经验,教出过100分以上的精英班学生,也教出过首战阅读26分的零基础学生。

  托福考生都知道,托福阅读有10大题型—细节题、排除题、词汇题、句子简化题、句子插入题、修辞目的题、推断题、篇章总结题以及图表归类题。

  同学们可能上了很多课,记下了每种题型的做题方法和思路,但是到了考试的时候,一旦所有题型混合起来,脑袋开始变得不好使了:这个是什么题型?这个题型的做法是什么?上课老师怎么讲的?于是在一连串的问号之后,迷迷糊糊的结束了考试。最后出来的成绩自然是不甚理想。

  究其原因是同学们没有抓住阅读考题的本质,没有理解出题者为何会在某个段落中出这些题型。因此本次名师课堂就要为大家讲解托福阅读文章中逻辑关系和题型之间的联系。


  第一节课我们先讲解并列逻辑关系和题型搭配。

  托福常考的逻辑中,并列关系逻辑在文章段落中出现的频率比较多,也是最容易被判断和出题的。我们先来看一下典型的并列结构的句子和段落:

  Entering the polis age, Athens had the traditional institutions of other Greek proto-democratic states: an assembly of adult males, an aristocratic council, and annually elected officials.(TPO40)

  Lower birth rates, low juvenile survivorship, and low growth rates follow, so there is a corresponding decline in hare abundance. (TPO27)

  It even affects the climate on a very local level (the "microclimate") by influencing light intensity, humidity, and both the range and extremes of temperature. (TPO40)

  仔细分析上述句子结构,不难看出并列关系句子中表现的形式之一:A、B 、C(A、B、C属性一致,可以是名词,名词性词组或者从句)

  并列结构的重要特征之一就是并列成分的词性属性和语法结构完全一致。下面我们来看看句子之间的并列关系。

  the most important traditional Navajo rituals include the production of large floor paintings.These are actually made by pouring thin, finely controlled streams of colored sands or pulverized vegetable and mineral substances, pollen, and flowers in precise patterns on the ground. The largest of these paintings may be up to 5.5 meters in diameter and cover the entire floor of a room. (TPO41)

  Two other factors contribute to the higher overall temperature in cities. The first is the heat capacity of the materials that constitute the city, which is typically dominated by concrete and asphalt. During the day, heat from the Sun can be conducted into these materials and stored—to be released at night. But in the countryside materials have a significantly lower heat capacity because a vegetative blanket prevents heat from easily flowing into and out of the ground. The second factor is that radiant heat coming into the city from the Sun is trapped in two ways: (1) by a continuing series of reflection among the numerous vertical surfaces that buildings present and (2) by the dust dome, the cloudlike layer of polluted air that most cities produce. (TPO23)

  Certain features of these engravings lead to the conclusion that they are of great age—geological changes had clearly happened after the designs had been made and local Aboriginal informants, when first questioned about them, seemed to know nothing of their origins. Furthermore, the designs were covered with “desert varnish,”a glaze that develops on rock surfaces over thousands of years of exposure to the elements. (TPO23)

  Mithen proposes the existence of four mental elements to account for the emergence of farming: (1) the ability to develop tools that could be used intensively to harvest and process plant resources; (2) the tendency to use plants and animals as the medium to acquire social prestige and power; (3) the tendency to develop "social relationships" with animals structurally similar to those developed with people—specifically, the ability to think of animals as people (anthropomorphism) and of people as animals (totemism); and (4) the tendency to manipulate plants and animals.

  从上述段落中可以看出,并列关系在段落中会有表示并列关系的衔接词:the first, the second, furthermore, 还有表示罗列顺序的数字。还有使用代词把各层意思都紧密串联在一起的并列结构(These are、 The largest of these paintings)。

  认识了上述的一些表示并列结构的句子和段落之后,下面看一下并列逻辑结构和题型的联系。

  作者使用并列结构的主要目的就是为了堆砌重要细节,一般都是为了描述某个现象,某个特点对象的重要特征。于是出题者往往有比较大的可能性针对这些并列结构句式和段落来出否定事实题。否定事实题的要求就是在众多细节信息中寻找一个错误细节。下面我们来看这道题:

  [ TPO28 ]The newly domesticated animals behaved better, were easier to control, and may have enjoyed a higher birth rate, which in turn yielded greater milk supplies.

  此题是Tpo28 中的,截取了其中的一题否定事实题。此题中的关键句中存在三项谓语动词结构并列关系:behaved better, were easier to control, and may have enjoyed a higher birth rate。

  分别使用了behave;were;have enjoyed,把一些重要细节都融入到此句子中,因此在这句话中考到了否定事实题,我们只需要在这句话中把三个正确对应选项找到即可。

  According to paragraph 3, all of the following statements were true of newly domesticated animals EXCEPT

  ○ They were controlled more easily by the farmers. (对应 were easier to control)

  ○ They produced a larger number of offspring. (对应enjoyed a higher birth rate)

  ○ They produce more milk. (yield greater milk)

  ○ They were larger in size. (无对应信息)

  [ TPO28 ]The cattle herders had only a few possessions: unsophisticated pots and polished adzes. They also hunted with bow and arrow. The Saharan people left a remarkable record of their lives painted on the walls of caves deep in the desert. Their artistic endeavors have been preserved in paintings of wild animals, cattle, goats, humans, and scenes of daily life that extend back perhaps to 5,000 B.C.. The widespread distribution of pastoral sites of this period suggests that the Saharans ranged their herds over widely separated summer and winter grazing grounds.

  仔细分析此段落,我们不难发现,这段的几个句子都是用代词串联起来的,所有的内容都是关于早期Saharan人的详细细节:The Saharan people……; Their artistic endeavors………; The widespread ………of this period suggests that ………。

  在这段话里面通过这些代词把关于early Saharan people 的一些细节信息都串联了起来,因此在这样的并列段落中,不出所料又出现了排除题:

  According to paragraph 5, each of the following was true about the early Saharan people EXCEPT

  ○ They had few possessions apart from cattle. (对应文中had only a few possessions)

  ○ After about 5,000 B.C., they lived primarily in caves that were located deep in the desert.

  ○ Between the summer and winter seasons, they moved their herds over long distances.(对应文中arrange their heards over separated summer and winter)

  ○ They painted animals and scenes of daily life on the walls of caves. (对应文中left a remarkable record of their lives painted on the walls )

  经过对选项和文中串联信息的仔细比对,不难发现,此题的错误选项应该是B。

  [ TPO36 ]But Forbes erred in two ways. One was the particular study site he happened to use a springboard for his sweeping postulate of a lifeless abyss. Although the Aegean had been the birthplace of marine biology, its depths are now known to be exceptionally lacking in animal diversity. Moreover, through no fault of his own, Forbes was not particularly successful at sampling such life as did exist at the bottom of the Aegean. Its opening was small and the holes in the net so large that the dredge inevitably missed animals. Many of those it did catch must have poured out of its open mouth when Forbes reeled it in.

  分析此段落,此段落也是明显的并列结构,混合使用了并列逻辑关联词和代词来串联一系列的细节信息: One; its; Moreover; Its opening; Many of those. 作者使用了这些并列逻辑关联词和代词把所有Forbes 的详细错误问题都串联了起来,因此在这段话中又出了否定事实题:

  According to paragraph 4, Forbes’s dredge had each of the following problems EXCEPT:

  ○ Its opening was too small to collect certain kinds of animals. (对应文中的its opening was small ….. missed animals)

  ○ The holes in its net were so large that animals could escape through them. (对应文中的the net so large that the dredge inevitably missed animals)

  ○ It could not get all the way down to the Aegean seafloor to sample the animals there.(对应文中such life as did exist at the bottom of the Aegean)此选项错误 选C

  ○ Many animals were lost out of its open mouth when it was pulled up. (对应文中的 those it did catch must have poured out of its open mouth)

  通过以上三个例子,我们对于并列结构的段落做一下总结:

  1)并列句式或者段落结构一般都有明显的表示并列关系的信号词。有in addition; furthermore; moreover; another; also; other。还有一些序数词,如the first, the second 等。

  2)不要忽略代词的串联作用。代词是把相关信息都串联起来,也就是说存在代词的句子之间都是具有相关性的,因此大家在看文章的时候必须把这些句子当做一个信息群组去理解。

  今天的讲解就到这里啦~

  你都学会了吗?

  对这篇文章有任何问题

  或者下一期想听哪位老师讲解

  想听关于雅思、托福、SAT的什么干货

  都欢迎下方留言~

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