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老师,我看到托福长难句就害怕....|名师说第十一期

2019/2/13 14:14:39来源:新航道作者:新航道

摘要:新航道上海学校雅思、托福主讲导师—章建丽老师为我们带来干货内容是其实无论多长的句子,多么复杂的结构,它们都是由一些基本的成分组成的,因此只要灵活运用一些基本语法知识就能弄清句子的结构,找出整个句子的主干,然后分析各层意思之间的逻辑关系

  每周三新航道上海学校 名师说栏目

  特为广大烤鸭、托友而设

  专门请资深雅思、托福专家

  以专题方式为大家讲解各类备考干货

  前几期还没看过的可以戳链接看回顾


  名师说第一期|目标雅思口语7分该怎样练习?


  名师说第二期|雅思语法中容易混淆的概念


  名师说第三期|托福写作该怎么举例子?


  名师说第四期|三步教你搞定托福口语task1的三选一题型


  名师说第五期|教你解决托福阅读简化句子题


  名师说第六期|托福听力之生僻的学科词汇真的不要背!


  名师说第七期|详解托福阅读推理题


  名师说第八期|托福口语拿满分?可以!


  名师说第九期|托福阅读细节题


  名师说第十期|三步提升托福听力,9分达人就是你!


  ▲章建丽

  新航道上海学校雅思、托福主讲

  9年一线教学经验

  上海师范大学教育学硕士

  曾赴东京经济大学访问交流

  托福考试中,有些同学害怕长句,经常就是每个单词意思都知道,但是放在句子里却看不懂整句话的意思。

  其实无论多长的句子,多么复杂的结构,它们都是由一些基本的成分组成的,因此只要灵活运用一些基本语法知识就能弄清句子的结构,找出整个句子的主干,然后分析各层意思之间的逻辑关系。下面我们举例来分析下托福阅读中的一些长句子:

01

  例句:How the first governments took shape in these areas is not certain, but anthropologists studying the evolution of human communities in various parts of the world have discovered that one common stage in the process is the emergence of what are called “big men” within a single village or a collection of villages.

  这句话大家先试试,能不能分析理解出意思呢?

  分析:(How the first governments took shape in these areas) is not certain, but anthropologists ( studying the evolution of human communities in various parts of the world)have discovered( that one common stage in the process is the emergence of (what are called “big men”) within a single village or a collection of villages.)

  划线部分是句子主干;

  标黄句子,How the first governments took shape in these areas主语从句做句子主语;

  标橘句子,studying the evolution of human communities in various parts of the world 现在分词短语作后置定语修饰anthropologists;

  标红句子,that one common stage in the process is the emergence of what are called “big men” within a single village or a collection of villages.动词discovered后面的宾语从句。what are called “big men”介词 of后面的宾语从句

  翻译:不能确定这些地区的首个政府是如何产生的,但研究世界不同地区人类社群演进的人类学家已经发现,此进程有一个共同阶段,即在一个村落或一组村落内出现所谓的“大人物”。

 02

  例子:It has been said that Chinese papermakers were among the prisoners captured in a battle fought near Samarqand between the Chinese and the Muslims in 751,and the technique of papermaking-in which cellulose pulp extracted from any of several plants is first suspended in water, caught on a fine screen, and then dried in flexible sheets-slowly spread westward.

  这句话再来试试,能不能分析理解出意思呢?

  分析: It has been said (that Chinese papermakers were among the prisoners captured in a battle fought near Samarqand between the Chinese and the Muslims in 751),and the technique of papermaking-(in which cellulose pulp extracted from any of several plants is first suspended in water, caught on a fine screen, and then dried in flexible sheets)-slowly spread westward.

  划线部分是句子主干;

  标黄句子,that Chinese papermakers were among the prisoners captured in a battle fought near Samarqand between the Chinese and the Muslims in 751是主语从句,其中:

  captured in a battle过去分词做后置定语修饰the prisoners

  fought near Samarqand 过去分词做后置定语修饰battle

  标红句子,in which cellulose pulp extracted from any of several plants is first suspended in water, caught on a fine screen, and then dried in flexible sheets定语从句修饰the technique of papermaking,其中:

  extracted from any of several plants过去分词做后置定语修饰cellulose pulp

  翻译:751年在撒马尔罕附近,中国人和穆斯林进行过一场战斗,据说,中国的造纸工人是此战役的被俘囚犯,于是,造纸术-从几种植物的任何一种之中提取纤维素纸浆,先是悬浮于水中,用细筛接住,然后干燥,制成柔韧的薄片-逐渐向西传播。

 03

  例子:The same thing happens to this day, though on a smaller scale, wherever a sediment-laden river or stream emerges from a mountain valley onto relatively flat land, dropping its load as the current slows: the water usually spreads out fanwise, depositing the sediment in the form of a smooth, fan-shaped slope.

  有了上面的两个解析后,大家有没有了解一些呢?再跟着我练习一遍吧。

  分析:The same thing happens to this day, though on a smaller scale, (wherever a sediment-laden river or stream emerges from a mountain valley onto relatively flat land), (dropping its load as the current slows:(the water usually spreads out fanwise, depositing the sediment in the form of a smooth, fan-shaped slope)).

  划线部分是句子主干,though on a smaller scale做插入成分,说明现在是在更小的规模上发生同样的事情;

  标黄句子,wherever a sediment-laden river or stream emerges from a mountain valley onto relatively flat land 是状语从句

  标红句子,dropping its load as the current slows: the water usually spreads out fanwise, depositing the sediment in the form of a smooth中:

  fan-shaped slope分词短语做状语,表示伴随发生的动作

  the water usually spreads out fanwise, depositing the sediment in the form of a smooth, fan-shaped slope 冒号后面用了一个同位语成分

  depositing the sediment in the form of a smooth, fan-shaped slope 现在分词短语做伴随状语

  翻译:现代也有冰水沉积,尽管规模相对较小。凡是有携带泥沙的河流或者溪流从山谷流至相对平坦的地面时,砂石就随着水流速度的减慢逐渐沉淀;水流通常呈扇形扩散,它们所携带的砂石也会沉淀为光滑的扇形斜坡。


  04

  例子:Contrary to the arguments of some that much of the pacific was settled by Polynesians accidentally marooned after being lost and adrift, it seems reasonable that this feat was accomplished by deliberate colonization expeditions that set out fully stocked with food and domesticated plants and animals.

  按照前面的套路,最后两题,给大家试一试吧。

  分析:Contrary to the arguments of some (that much of the pacific was settled by Polynesians accidentally marooned after being lost and adrift), it seems reasonable(that this feat was accomplished by deliberate colonization expeditions (that set out fully stocked with food and domesticated plants and animals))

  划线部分是句子主干;

  标黄句子that much of the pacific was settled by Polynesians accidentally

  marooned after being lost and adrift,同位语从句,解释说明arguments

  在上面同位语从句里还有一个现在分词短语做状语after being lost and adrift,相当于after Polynesians were lost and adrift;

  标红句子,that this feat wasaccomplished by deliberate colonization expeditions that set out fully stocked with food and domesticated plants and

  animals,主语从句 it seems reasonable中的 it是形式主语。

  真正的主语是这个从句:that set out fully stocked with food and domesticated plants and

  animals,定语从句,修饰expeditions;fully stocked with food and domesticated plants and animals,过去分词短语做状语修饰set out,出发时充分贮存了食物和被驯化动植物。

  翻译:和某些人的观点相反,这些观点认为波利尼西亚人是在偶尔迷失和漂流被困住而定居在大部分太平洋地区,另外一种观点似乎更加合理,认为这些功绩是通过故意的并且出发时充分贮存了食物和被驯化动植物的殖民探险来实现的。

  05

  例子:However, no group or species can maintain its dominance indefinitely, and when, after over 200 million years, the age of dinosaurs came to a dramatic end about 65 million years ago, mammals began to flourish, evolving from relatively few types of small terrestrial animals into the myriad of diverse species, including bats and whales, that we know today.

  好,最后一个例子,大家来总结分析下。

  分析:However, no group or species can maintain its dominance indefinitely, and(when, after over 200 million years, the age of dinosaurs came to a dramatic end about 65 million years ago), mammals began to flourish, (evolving from relatively few types of small terrestrial animals into the myriad of diverse species, including bats and whales, that we know today.)

  划线部分是句子主干;

  标黄句子,when, after over 200 million years, the age of dinosaurs came to a dramatic end about 65 million years ago 状语从句;

  标红句子,evolving from relatively few types of small terrestrial animals into the myriad of diverse species, including bats and whales, that we know today 现在分词短语做状语

  翻译:但是,没有生物群或物种可以无限期的保持其支配地位;在2亿多年后,恐龙时代在大约6500万年前戏剧化的终结,此后哺乳动物开始繁盛,他们从相对很少的几种小型陆生动物进化为我们现在所知的无数不同物种,包括蝙蝠和鲸鱼。


  从上面的分析可以看出

  在做阅读长难句时,一个基本的思路是


  删繁就简

  即抛去句中插入语、介词短语及分词短语等修饰

  先关注主干,理解句子的核心意思

  遵循这样一些规律运用语法知识

  有助于提高阅读效率和相关题型

  尤其是句子简化题的正确率

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