欢迎来到上海新航道学校官网!英语高能高分,就上新航道

上海学校

  • 课程
  • 资讯

4008-125-888

主页>托福TPO>正文

托福TPO50阅读原文+题目(三)

2017/8/17 10:33:55来源:新航道作者:新航道

摘要:上海新航道托福培训机构小编为托福考生们准备了托福TPO50阅读​原文+题目(三),希望各位考生们在TPO真题里能够得到锻炼,祝广大托福考生能够取得理想成绩。

   上海新航道托福培训机构小编为托福考生们准备了托福TPO50阅读原文+题目(三),希望各位考生们在TPO真题里能够得到锻炼,祝广大托福考生能够取得理想成绩。


  托福阅读TPO50(三)原文+题目:Birdsong

  Birdsong is the classic example of how genes (hereditary information) and environment both have a crucial role to play in the behavioral development of animals. Since the pioneering work of W. H. Thorpe on chaffinches (a common European bird), many species have been studied, and it has become clear both that learning plays an important role for all species and also that there are constraints on what they are able to learn.

托福培训班课程

  Thorpe was able to show that learning from others was involved in chaffinch birds through a series of experiments on hand-reared chicks (young birds). As in most other species, only the males sing. Thorpe found that, if he raised young males in total isolation from all others, the song they produced was quite different from that of a normal adult. It was about the right length and in the correct frequency range; it was also split up into a series of notes as it should be. But these notes lacked the detailed structure found in wild birds, nor was the song split up into distinct phrases as it usually is. This suggested that song development requires some social influence. Later experiments in which researchers played recordings of songs to young birds showed just how precise this influence was: many of them would learn the exact pattern of the recording they had heard. A remarkable feature here was that birds were able to copy precisely songs that they only heard in the first few weeks of life, yet they did not sing themselves until about eight months old. They are thus able to store a memory of the sound within their brain and then match their own output to their recollection of it when they mature.


  Young chaffinches normally learn only chaffinch song, though Thorpe found they could be trained to sing the song of a tree pipit (another type of bird), which is very similar to that of their own species.In general, however, the constraints on learning which birds have ensure that they only learn songs appropriate to the species to which they themselves belong.These constraints may be in their brain circuitry, the young bird hatching with a rough idea of the sounds that it should copy.The crude song of a bird reared in isolation gives some clues as to what this rough idea may be: the length, the frequency range and the breaking up into notes are all aspects of chaffinch song shared between normal birds and those reared in isolation. In other cases the constraints are more social, young birds only being prepared to learn from individuals with whom they have social interactions. Thus, in a number of species, it has been found that they will not copy from recordings, but will do so from a live tutor. In some cases this may occur when they are young birds, but in others the main learning period is when they set up their territories and interact with neighbors for the first time, enabling them to match their neighbor songs and so counter sing with them. Whatever the nature of the learning rules in a particular species, there is no doubt that they are effective: it is very unusual to hear a wild bird singing a song which is not typical of its own species despite the many different songs which often occur in a small patch of woodland.


  However, not all birds show the same learning pattern as do chaffinches. There are some species which produce normal sounds even if deaf, so that they cannot hear their own efforts, much less copy those of others. The cooing of doves and the crowing of cocks are examples here. In other cases, such as parrots and hill mynahs, birds can be trained to copy a huge variety of sounds, though those they learn in the wild are usually more restricted. The amazing capability of mynahs has apparently arisen simply because birds in an area learn a small number of their calls from each other, males from males and females from females, and these calls are highly varied in structure. The ability to master them has led the birds, incidentally, to be capable of saying hello and mimicking a wide variety of other sounds.


  以上就是小编为大家带来关于托福TPO阅读资料供大家阅读参考,新航道托福资料频道将第一时间为考生发布最全、最新、最专业的托福资讯及托福考试资料及机经.


    托福阅读TPO50另两篇阅读原文+题目:

    托福TPO50阅读|原文+题目(一)


    托福TPO50|阅读原文+题目(二)

请加sunny老师(微信号:shnc2014

百人留学备考群,名师答疑,助教监督,分享最新资讯,领取独家资料。扫码免费加入

免费获取资料

免责声明
1、如转载本网原创文章,情表明出处
2、本网转载媒体稿件旨在传播更多有益信息,并不代表同意该观点,本网不承担稿件侵权行为的连带责任;
3、在本网博客/论坛发表言论者,文责自负。

热报课程

  • 托福课程
班级名称 班号 开课时间 人数 学费 报名
秋季-托福精品精讲班(争100/110分) TFHF1741XHX04 2017/9/28 0:00:00 10-15人 ¥13800.00 在线咨询
托福精品精讲班(争100/110分)(10-15人班) TFHF1741XHX04 2017/9/28 0:00:00 10-15人 ¥13800.00 在线咨询
秋季-托福基础精讲班(争80分) TFLF1741RGX04 2017/9/28 0:00:00 10-15人 ¥15800.00 在线咨询
托福基础精讲班(争80分)(10-15人班) TFLF1741RGX04 2017/9/28 0:00:00 10-15人 ¥15800.00 在线咨询
封闭班-托福基础精讲班(争80分)(10-15人班) TFLF1741FBX04 2017/9/28 0:00:00 10-15人 ¥15800.00 在线咨询
封闭班-托福精品精讲班(争100/110分)(10-15人班) TFHF1741FBX04 2017/9/28 0:00:00 10-15人 ¥13800.00 在线咨询

制作:每每

旗舰校区:上海市徐家汇裕德路126号
乘车路线:地铁1、4号线上海体育馆、3号线9号线宜山路站、11号线上海游泳馆站 电话:4008-125-888 传真:+021-61208858