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2018/6/4 11:39:56来源:新航道作者:新航道



  Task 1


  Think of one place where you have never visited but where you would really like to go. Explain what it is that interests you about this place.


  The place I would love to visit is Santorini. It is a fascinating little island in Greece. It is actually getting more and more popular among young people these days, especially newly-weds who tend to hold their weddings or spend their honeymoons there. I guess they are drawn to this charming island mainly because it really looks like a romantic and poetic paradise, with the blue sea, the clear sky and the white attics. You know, it is just a perfect place for you to take some amazing photos, rest your mind and spend some quality time with the love of your life. So it is definitely a must-go place for me and I would like to go there with my fiancé in the future.



  Some people say that childhood is the best time in a person's life. Other people disagree. What is your opinion? Explain why.


  In my eyes, childhood is indeed the best period of time in one's life. Being a kid is probably the most care-free phase throughout one's life. On the one hand, you are taken good care of by both your parents and grandparents, so you don't have to worry about how to make a living. You are free from stress or anxiety. After all, you are not the breadwinner. On the other hand, you enjoy your pure and sincere friendship with your little buddies who perhaps live just next door to you. There is much less competition, comparison or peer pressure among little kids. So you are loved, cherished, or even pampered. Childhood really seems like a peaceful and joyful time where you are not bothered by the trivial or mundane things that keeps bugging adolescents and adults.



  Community Service Requirement

  A university education should encourage students to engage with the world around them, but I see less and less of that engagement on campus today. I propose, therefore, that the university make community service, such as working with the local children in town, a mandatory activity for all university students before they graduate. Creating a community service requirement is a good idea because it would strengthen the relationship between our school and the town. Additionally, in fulfilling the requirement, many students would discover a love of service that would inspire them to a lifetime of volunteer work in their future communities.


  Sarah Brown


  The man expresses his opinion of the student's proposal in the letter. State the man's opinion and explain the reasons he gives for holding that opinion


  Well, the man disagrees with the reasons and points made in the letter for two reasons. First of all, he believes that school-town relationship will be hurt by forcing students to do volunteer service since students won't put their hearts into the work and will just regard it as a nuisance. Second, he believes that the idea of creating community service requirement to encourage students to do more volunteering in the future is just ridiculous, since students do not have extra time for doing such things. As a result, it will only leave students negative feelings about it, let alone inspiring them to do more volunteering in the future. In a word, the man disagrees with the letter for the reasons stated above.




  Systems Thinking

  Companies have designed new and improved ways to solve problems within their organizations. Rather than seeking a simple cause and a direct solution to problems, companies are now using an approach called systems thinking. Systems thinking involves solving problems long-term by considering the "big picture," that is, how the interaction of many different parts of a large system may contribute to a problem. Companies use systems thinking because, even though it may produce complex solutions that take a long time to implement, it is an effective way to solve problems and has a greater long-term benefit to the company.


  Explain how the example discussed by the professor illustrates a systems thinking approach to problem solving.


  The reading passage gives the definition of systems thinking, which means that companies use long-term method,putting all parts of the system together, to solve problems. The professor uses an example to further explain this concept. There's a corporation which hires a consultant to find the root of the absence of workers. After interviewing workers and researching other aspects of the company such as eating facilities and health services it offered, the consultant finally finds out that it is the lack of exercise opportunities and healthy meals that causes the workers' poor health. Then the company take relevant measures to ensure the workers' health and thus solve the problem of absence.



  The student and the professor discuss two possible solutions to the student's problem. Briefly summarize the problem. Then state which solution you recommend and why.


  Well, the woman has got a problem that she is supposed to organize the poetry reading next week but the arts center, where the reading will be held, isn't going to be ready on time. There are two solutions for the woman to solve the problem. She could put off the reading and reschedule it once the center is finished or she could hold the reading at the auditorium in the library. I guess the woman should take the second solution for two reasons. First of all, it's not easy to call all these poets together if she choose to reschedule the reading on another day, and having the reading at the auditorium could at least make sure these poets have time to come. Second, an auditorium may be a better choice for holding the reading since it is cozier and less formal, and people may feel more comfortable there. The smaller place wouldn't be a problem because there must be some poets who won't be able to come, so actually the auditorium is large enough for a good number of people. All in all, I agree that the woman should hold the reading in the auditorium instead of rescheduling it on another day.




  Using points and examples from the lecture, explain what determines animals' 24-hour activity cycle.


  In this lecture, the professor probes into two different kinds of factors that determine the animals' biological cycles, internal clocks and external clocks, which can affect each other. The professor takes flying squirrel as an example. In the experiment, when flying squirrels are kept in constant darks for about a month, they are still able to keep regular cycles of activity,which shows that internal clocks do work in flying squirrels when the external environment has changed, although it is about half an hour shorter than the normal length of time. On the other hand. When these squirrels are exposed to the daylight again after a month of darkness, they are not as active as they usually are during the nighttime and wake up during the day. And then, the external clocks, along with the cycle of light and darkness, begin to adjust the squirrels’ internal clocks. Finally, their biological cycles return to normal again.













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