circuitous ADJ. /迂回的/ roundabout. To avoid the traffic congestion on the main highways, she took a circuitous route. circuit, N.
*circumlocution N. /婉转曲折的表达/ indirect or roundabout expression. He was afraid to call a spade a spade and resorted to circumlocutions to avoid direct reference to his subject.
circumscribe V. /限制/ limit; confine. Although I do not wish to circumscribe your activities, I must insist that you complete this assignment before you start anything else.
circumspect ADJ. /慎重;周到/ prudent; cautious. Investigating before acting, she tried always to be circumspect.
circumvent V. /智取;包围/ outwit; baffle. In order to circumvent the enemy, we will make two preliminary attacks in other sections before starting our major campaign.
cistern N. /水塔;水库/ reservoir or water tank. The farmers were able to withstand the dry season by using rainwater they had stored in an underground cistern.
citadel N. /大本营/ fortress. The citadel overlooked the city like a protecting angel.
cite V. /引用;掌握/ quote; command. She could cite passages in the Bible from memory. citation, N.
Civil ADJ. /民事的;国民的/ having to do with citizens or the state; courteous and polite. Although Internal Revenue Service agents are civil servants, they are not always civil to suspected tax cheats.
clairvoyant ADJ. N. /预知;预言者/ having foresight; fortuneteller. Cassandra's clairvoyant warning was not heeded by the Trojans. clairvoyance, N.
clamber V. /爬/ climb by crawling. She clambered over the wall.
clamor N. /吵闹声;噪音/ noise. The clamor of the children at play outside made it impossible for her to take a nap. also V.
clandestine ADJ. /秘密/ secret. After avoiding their chaperon, the lovers had a clandestine meeting.
clangor N. /大声喧哗;持续的铿锵声/ loud, resounding noise. The blacksmith was accustomed to the clangor of hammers on steel.
clapper N. /铃舌，钟舌/ striker (tongue) of a bell. Wishing to be undisturbed by the bell, Dale wound his scarf around the clapper to muffle the noise of its striking.
clasp N. /扣合;紧密合作/ fastening device; firm grip. When the clasp on Judy's bracelet broke, Fred repaired it, bending the hook back into shape. He then helped her slip on the bracelet, holding it firm in the sure clasp of his hand.
claustrophobia N. /幽闭恐怖症/ fear of being locked in. His fellow classmates laughed at his claustrophobia and often threatened to lock him in his room.
cleave V. /劈开;黏着;忠于/ split or sever; cling to; remain faithful to. With her heavy cleaver, Julia Child can cleave a whole roast duck in two. Soaked through, the soldier tugged at the uniform that cleaved annoyingly to his body. He would cleave to his post, come rain or shine.
Cleft N. /裂缝;开裂/ split. Trying for a fresh handhold, the mountainclimber grasped the edge of a cleft in the sheer rockface. also ADJ.
clemency N. /温和;仁慈/ disposition to be lenient; mildness, as of the weather. The lawyer was pleased when the case was sent to Judge Smith's chambers because Smith was noted for her clemency toward first offenders.
clench V. /牢牢抓住/ close tightly; grasp. "Open wide," said the dentist, but Clint clenched his teeth even more tightly than before.
cliché N. /陈词滥调/ phrase dulled in meaning by repetition. High school compositions are often marred by such clichés as "strong as an ox."
clientele N. /常客/ body of customers. The rock club attracted a young, stylish clientele.
climactic ADJ. /顶点的，高潮的/ relating to the highest point. When he reached the climactic portions of the book, he could not stop reading. climax, N.
clime N. /地域;气候/ region; climate. His doctor advised him to move to a milder clime.
Clip N. /剪辑/ section of filmed material. Phil's job at Fox Sports involved selecting clips of the day's sporting highlights for later broadcast. also V.
clique N. /小圈子;同行/ small exclusive group. Fitzgerald wished that he belonged to the clique of popular athletes and big men on campus who seemed to run Princeton's social life.
cloister N. /修道院/ monastery or convent. The nuns lived a secluded life in the cloister.
Clout N. /巨大的影响(政治\社会)/ great influence (especially political or social). Gatsby wondered whether he had enough clout to be admitted to the exclusive club.
cloying ADJ. /倒胃口;过度的/ distasteful (because excessive); excessively sweet or sentimental. Disliking the cloying sweetness of standard wedding cakes, Jody and Tom chose to have homemade carrot cake at the reception. cloy, V.
Clump N. /一块，一团;沉重的脚步声;草丛，灌木丛/ cluster or close group (of bushes, trees); mass; sound of heavy treading. Hiding behind the clump of bushes, the fugitives waited for the heavy clump of the soldiers' feet to fade away.
coagulate V. /凝结/ thicken; congeal; clot. Even after you remove the pudding from the burner, it will continue to coagulate as it stands; therefore, do not overcook the pudding, lest it become too thick.
*coalesce V. /接合/ combine; fuse. The brooks coalesce into one large river. When minor political parties coalesce, their coalescence may create a major coalition.
coalition N. /伙伴;同盟，集合/ partnership; league; union. The Rainbow Coalition united people of all races in a common cause.
coddle V. /娇养，溺爱/ to treat gently. Don't coddle the children so much; they need a taste of discipline.
codicil N. /遗嘱的附录/ supplement to the body of a will. Miss Havisham kept her lawyers busy drawing up codicils to add to her already complicated will.
codify V. /编纂/ arrange (laws, rules) as a code; classify. We need to take the varying rules and regulations of the different health agencies and codify them into a national health code.
coercion N. /威逼，强迫/ use of force to get someone to obey. The inquisitors used both physical and psychological coercion to force Joan of Arc to deny that her visions were sent by God. coerce, V.
cogent ADJ. /有说服力的/ convincing. It was inevitable that David chose to go to Harvard: he had several cogent reasons for doing so, including a full-tuition scholarship. Katya argued her case with such cogency that the jury had to decide in favor of her client.
cogitate V. /考虑/ think over. Cogitate on this problem; the solution will come.
cognate ADJ. /同源的/ related linguistically: allied by blood: similar or akin in nature. The English word "mother" is cognate to the Latin word "mater," whose influence is visible in the words "maternal" and "maternity." also N.
cognitive ADJ. /认知的/ having to do with knowing or perceiving; related to the mental processes. Though Jack was emotionally immature, his cognitive development was admirable; he was very advanced intellectually.
cognizance N. /认知/ knowledge. During the election campaign, the two candidates were kept in full cognizance of the international situation.
cohere V. /粘住的/ stick together. Solids have a greater tendency to cohere than liquids.
cohesion N. /内聚力;黏度/ tendency to keep together. A firm believer in the maxim "Divide and conquer,"the evil emperor, by means of lies and trickery, sought to disrupt the cohesion of the federation of free nations.
coiffure N. /发型/ hairstyle. You can make a statement with your choice of coiffure: in the sixties many African Americans affirmed their racial heritage by wearing their hair in Afros.
coin V. /铸币;发明;杜撰/ make coins; invent or fabricate. Mints coin good money; counterfeiters coin fakes.Slanderers coin nasty rumors; writers coin words. A neologism is an expression that's been newly-coined.
coincidence N. /巧合/ two or more things occurring at the same time by chance. Was it just a coincidence that John and she had chanced to meet at the market for three days running, or was he deliberately trying to seek her out? coincidental, ADJ.
colander N. /过滤器/ utensil with perforated bottom used for straining. Before serving the spaghetti, place it in a colander to drain it.